Make Bets That Assure You A Win

Making money from soccer betting is all the matter of taking advantage from the information. Losing with a small amount will not be a disaster,you can easily make other bets with more excitement and fun.

The money making strategy in soccer betting is all about taking advantage from the information available,the more you are acquainted with latest trends the more you have chances of making as much money as you can. Websites guides players about recommendable bookmakers, betting tips, free bets and bonuses which let the players to have a unique betting style.

Article Directory: provides all information that you require for placing winning soccer bets. Generally people get excited and make bets for larger amount all the time,this can lead them to debts because bankroll emptied quite early. Here you get trusted and reliable statistics, tables, betting tips and latest results that relates to football betting. Many times you might be very close to win,but end up losing. It’s quite visible that Spain and Brazil are hot favorites for this soccer season, with presence of other teams,you need to carefully analyze their individualized performance and then place bets. However, despite of being an unpredictable affair betting lets you make huge money within a short span. Website offering betting tips have plethora of tips along with a statistical analysis that guides you and let you focus on the certainty of the bets at stake. It is essential to make a strong by soccer betting,you do not easily lose your calm and play with utmost patience.

By: Pedro Walker

. You can also take a look on online lives scores of the matches and take the reviews of expert’s punter

All of us are aware that betting is a risky affair,this unpredicted event can take you to deep profits and at the same time you can lose also.

Make your thoughts clear had have a strong base to make the most of this soccer betting season.

The real of of online soccer betting is not as simple as the flip of a coin which lets you decide outcome of the match. Online betting websites are a great source which provide players with enriched betting odds, higher stakes and array of bets for novices as well experienced punters. Make sure you have maintained a betting limit , instead of wagering with hefty bucks, play with a small amount many times. Both of the teams have unbeatable good players,but then you should make bets after doing plenty of research work,don’t just stick to one,play smartly.

Managing your betting amount is a crucial part to consider while you are placing soccer bets.

As the grand soccer world cup 200 is gearing near, players have great opportunity to try hand in making lucrative bets

Horse Racing Blogs ~ OLBG Betting Blogs


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The sole purpose of this blog is to provide an easily accessible index with links for all the weekly Horse Racing Trends blogs, to enable readers to browse these information packed articles, which will gradually build into a comprehensive source of data as time progresses. more

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Portland Handicap (Updated 9th September)

Horse Racing Trends – Issue 1 – 30 August To 5 September 2016

6 September 2016 22:37

 By Robmull in Horse Racing

After a rollercoaster August we sit at around +£138 LSP for the year which is fantastic. more

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 By Micko70 in Horse Racing

 By Robmull in Horse Racing

The Portland Handicap is a top quality sprint run on St Leger Day at Doncaster over 5 & 1/2 furlongs, it usually attracts some good horses and usually has a big field. more

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5 September 2016 16:08

29 August 2016 14:26

2 September 2016 13:45

Haydock Sprint Cup

2 September 2016 16:00

24 August 2016 14:45

 By Micko70 in Horse Racing

 By meoldmate in Horse Racing

31 August 2016 22:32

7 September 2016 14:39

23 August 2016 16:18

29 August 2016 14:12

Test – Horse Racing Trends Sample Blog – 23 To 29 August 2016

Horse Racing Trends – Issue 2 – 6 To 12 September 2016

The 32Red Haydock Sprint Cup is run at Haydock Park on the first Saturday of September over 6 furlongs, it’s a Group 1 and open to horses aged 3 or older.

Although it is highly unlikely that all of the trends detailed below will prove profitable to follow immediately, many of the statistics should be worth noting for consideration in the future….

Although it is highly unlikely that all of the trends detailed below will prove profitable to follow immediately, many of the statistics should be worth noting for consideration in the future….

Please feel free to read these articles at your leisure and make notes of the data items that you believe will prove useful to you in your quest to find winners.

I looked at many blogs and where racing is often concerned it just shows stats and history. THREE JUVENILES TO FOLLOW

I thought I would try something different on the horse racing front and instead of highlighting a meeting or race i would take a different path. One is declared to race today and another two running tomorrow….

What I am going to do over the coming season and following, is to select three two year olds to follow.

Rob…. more

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 By Robmull in Horse Racing

Three Two Year Old’s To Follow Throughout The Season To Come And Onwards

The purpose of this blog is to provide trends based information that will hopefully assist readers to identify value and profitable wagers throughout the week. Hopefully we can have a month to rival last September.

I have looked at 8 trends for the race, they are Age, Weight, Official Rating, Recent Runs, Last Run, Year Runs & Distance…. more

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 By Scratville in Horse Racing

The Mallard Stakes, is a long distance handicap run at Doncaster’s St Leger meeting in September. more

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 By Robmull in Horse Racing

Horse Racing Trainers To Follow In September

The purpose of this blog is to provide trends based information that will hopefully assist readers to identify value and profitable wagers throughout the week.

I have looked at the last 10 years and looked at the following trends, Age, Official Rating, Recent Runs, Last Run, Year Runs, Year Wins, Group Form & Distance….



We start with a blog regular…. more

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 By Micko70 in Horse Racing

The Mallard Stakes (Updated 7th Sept).

I have looked at Age, Official Rating, Recent Runs, Last Run, Year Runs, Year Wins & Draw….

It’s run over 1m 6 1/2 furlongs and is open to all horses aged 3 or older, i have looked at 7 trends for the race, they are Age, Weight, Recent Runs, Last Run, year Runs, Year Wins & Distance….

All the best. more

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Horse Racing Trends Blogs Index

The Winter Hill Stakes is one of those rare Group races that takes place at an evening meeting, it’s a Group 3 run over 1m 2f at Windsor on the last Saturday of August.

Although it is highly unlikely that all of the trends detailed below will prove profitable to follow immediately, many of the statistics should be worth noting for consideration in the future…. more

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 By Micko70 in Horse Racing

Winter Hill Stakes

The purpose of this blog is to provide trends based information that will hopefully assist readers to identify value and profitable wagers throughout the week. All those 8 trainers are back and a few new additions. Last September was a great month with a +£72 LSP and 8 of our 10 highlighted trainers ending the month in profit

High school, College and Professional Football

In high school football, the teams generally play only with the other teams in the same state. However in the 1970’s NFL began to schedule one game every Monday and in 2006, games are scheduled on Thursdays and on Saturdays at the end of the season. In 2011, he played for the Oakland Raiders and currently he is a part of the New York Jets team.

The National Football League comprised of 32 teams is the highest major professional league in the United States. When not busy with football practice at the filed, he would usually spend most of his time playing first person shooting videogames such as call of duty, halo or even battlefield.

One of the players in the NFL is Steven Heyer.

Eligible college football players are selected by NFL teams during the NFL Drafts usually held in April. Steven Heyer started his professional football career in 2007 as part of Washington Redskins. Majority of the colleges and universities in the United States have their own football teams and college football is administered by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). There is also the United Football League with only 5 teams and several other semi-professional football leagues like women’s semi-professional football, and indoor football leagues are also played all throughout the country. It has been a tradition in the United States to play high school football games, college games and professional games on Friday, Saturday and Sunday respectively. Compared to other popular sports in the United States, American football seasons are typically far shorter because of its toll on the human body. Playoffs for NFL is held until January while the Super Bowl is usually played in the first week of February, thus covering a wide range of weather conditions, from the heat and humidity of late summer, to the cold winds and snow in mid-winter. . Early professional teams also shared the same field with baseball teams which is the reason why the end of the baseball season marks the start of the football season.

The major forms of football in the United States are high school football, college football and professional football. Traditionally, football is an autumn sport which typically starts in mid-to-late August until January. The Division I Bowl Subdivision which is the largest among the aforementioned divisions does not have a structured tournament to be able to determine its national champion; hence the teams are requested to play in numerous post-season bowl games.

Author’s Bio: 

Allie Evans is a left tackle for his junior college team. This is also the reason why football teams very seldom play more than one game in a week. He has been playing football since high school and college. He considers Steven Heyer of the Raiders as one of his football idols. The said schools play at the NCAA’s divisional system with four divisions: Division I Bowl Subdivision, Division I Championship Subdivision, Division II and Division III

Ultimate pro football betting guide

AFC betting previews | NFC | Super Bowl bets

The Bills did thrive on the offensive side last season, as offensive coordinator Greg Roman did an incredible job with quarterback Tyrod Taylor & Co. So, I actually think now that the value is on the over 8, especially at the current 150 price. After Philadelphia traded away Sam Bradford, this number has been raised to 8.5, and I believe that’s an over-adjustment — so I now like the under 8.5 (and ESPN’s Football Power Index and our Money Line Estimate agree as they’re still right around 8 wins). In addition, their top draft choice, Shaq Lawson, might be back from injury in November and second-rounder Reggie Ragland is already done for the season. The FPI at 9.3 and MLE at 9.4 slightly agree, though it is a little concerning that they’re only clear underdogs in just four games (how they fare in the four pick ‘em games will tell the tale). Secondly, and ultimately the biggest hurdle, is they have to win three playoff games in a row (four if they don’t get a first-round bye), and head coach Marvin Lewis is 0-7 in the playoffs and 0-4 with Andy Dalton as the starting QB. Head coach Dan Quinn, who built the Seattle Seahawks’ defense before taking this job, obviously still has a lot of work to do with the defense, but that’s why we’re getting such a great price. Note that with the top AFC teams expected down compared to the Cardinals, Packers, Panthers and Seahawks, the key is to bet the Ravens to win their conference.


After Super Bowl 50, I made the Falcons my best value bet for Super Bowl LI at 40-1. In addition, they were minus-15 in turnovers and nine of their 11 losses were within eight points as seemingly nothing went right. They jumped to 6-0 record before their bye week, outscoring the opposition 164-101. Yes, this is a tall win projection, but the Packers are a heavy hitter and the schedule is as soft as a pillow.

Dallas Cowboys (25-1)

The question lingers as to whether Rex and his brother Rob Ryan turn this defense around. And while defenses can still win championships, like we saw last year with Denver, it’s not a necessity in today’s NFL.

The Giants’ over/under was at 8 with added juice most of the summer, and it was a pass for me. If Prescott can keep Dallas in contention and Romo returns healthy, the 25-1 price could be an overlay — as long as Romo can stay healthy the rest of the way, which is asking a lot.

Kansas City Chiefs under 9.5 ( 120)

Cincinnati Bengals over 9.5 (EVEN)

Atlanta Falcons (80-1)

Opening week last year, the Ravens lost defensive force and team leader? Terrell Suggs — and quite simply, it was all downhill from there. They did lose defensive tackle Kyle Williams early in the season, but a defensive mastermind like Ryan should be capable of working around a key injury.

Atlanta Falcons over 7 (-130)

Vital when handicapping over/under season wins is the schedule, and the Packers’ slate is relatively smooth sailing. The first 10 games will test the mettle of Ryan & Co. The schedule is tough and front-weighted. Their offensive line, receivers and quarterback certainly rank in the upper echelon of the NFL. Peyton Manning is gone, of course, but if Trevor Siemian can run the offense — which relied more on the running game last year anyway — the defense can carry this team far.

Erin Rynning

Yes, there’s a trend here with finding value on teams with QB issues.

New York Giants under 8.5 (-120)

Offensively, the Cardinals continue to be sound at all levels. Nelson is back this season, while the signing of Jared Cook gives Rodgers another weapon.

Note: I still like the Houston Texans over 8.5 (-120), but not as much as I did when I got over 8 over the summer (though it still takes 9 wins to cash), so that’s why it didn’t make my list of top “over” bets. Besides, the encouraging number is the 12 games that the Bengals are expected to be favored in this year. The Jets were 10-6 last year and had the No. The better play now is Cincinnati at 20-1, as the Bengals have one of the best all-around teams with a balanced offense and a solid bend-but-don’t-break defense. They’ll most likely catch the Cowboys without Tony Romo. Basically, it comes down to believing we’re much more likely to see 6 wins (and a winning ticket) as opposed to 8.

I had a lean on the Jets under 8 back in April, but that was when Ryan Fitzpatrick was holding out, and I expected the number to go higher if he signed. Best future bets, season win total bets, teams to bet on and against — it’s all here in Chalk’s 2016 pro football betting guide. ESPN’s Football Power Index has this total pushing with exactly 7 wins, but I like that the Saints are only projected to be favored in six games at CG Technology, plus the Money Line Estimate only adds up to 6.4 wins. We saw how they looked in their 5-0 start last season, when Matt Ryan and Julio Jones looked unstoppable and Devonta Freeman emerged as a scoring machine — and they were the only team to beat Carolina in the regular season. They eventually placed 20 players on injured reserve, including eight projected starters — Suggs, Joe Flacco, Justin Forsett and Steve Smith included. However, we’ve clearly seen the high end of this Packers team over the previous two seasons as an offensive machine and a capable defense. They’re still the best value bet on the board in my opinion. However, it’s easy to flush last season down the drain and move forward with this rock-solid organization.. In proper Ryan-like fashion, the Bills also led the NFL in penalties last year. But the talent is there to take a flier.

Other potential future-book plays

Denver Broncos (25-1)

Buffalo Bills under 8 (-150)

Under the leadership of John Harbaugh and Ozzie Newsome, the Ravens have been a threat every season to reach the Super Bowl. They added defensive leader Eric Weddle to their defensive backfield, and were able to add the No. However, after ranking 12th in points per game and sixth in yards per play, expect the league to adjust and regression to occur. Before last season, Harbaugh owned a 72-38 regular-season NFL record as head coach, plus 10-5 in the postseason. They don’t need to win them all to get over the total and, even if they don’t win them all, I give them a decent shot to win some of the rare games where they’ll be underdogs or pick ‘em.

You have to believe that Sam Bradford puts them back on track, and you have to not worry about not pulling the trigger when you could have had 30-1 when Shaun Hill was expected to be the starter.

Green Bay Packers over 10.5 (-170)

After the schedules came out in April, I made the Saints’ under 6.5 ( 115) one of my best bets, so I like under 7 even better, though the juice is heavy at -140. Of course, there are two big obstacles for the Bengals: First, they really need to hold off the Pittsburgh Steelers in the AFC North and secure a first-round bye. Obviously we can’t have the Chiefs going on another 10-game winning streak, but that was a bit of a fluke, and no one’s going to be looking past them this year.


After Super Bowl 50, the Houston Texans were my choice for best value play out of the AFC at 40-1.

Again, we don’t need the Bengals to erase their playoff demons to cash this bet. Unfortunately, they’ve lost the services of difference-maker Marcell Dareus for the first four games. The market hasn’t agreed, as the Falcons drifted all the way up to 100-1 before dipping back to 80-1 over Labor Day weekend. The loss of Tyrann Mathieu was devastating for this group late last season, as he works himself to 100 percent by this season’s end.

Minnesota Vikings (20-1)

Dave Tuley

The season is finally upon us. with trips to Baltimore, New England, Los Angeles, Miami, Seattle and Cincinnati, while garnering the Jets, Arizona and New England at home. Importantly, the Cardinals can move forward from last year. A potential Super Bowl game was promising last season before their collapse in Carolina to end the year after an impeccable 13-3 regular season. 6 overall draft choice, left tackle Ronnie Stanley. I don’t believe the Jets can catch the Patriots, but for this bet they just need to finish over .500 again.

New Orleans Saints under 7 (-140)

Arizona’s brilliant head coach Bruce Arians continues to preach it’s all about getting that ring on your finger, and his team is as well-rounded as any to deliver the title this season. ESPN Chalk’s NFL Vegas experts, Dave Tuley and Erin Rynning, combine to bring you the ultimate betting guide for 2016. If you don’t mind giving up the insurance of a push on 7, there are some books that have over 7.5 at plus-money, and even if they don’t live up to my lofty expectations, I don’t think they’ll be worse than a .500 team and get at least the 8 wins needed to cash this bet.

New York Jets over 8 ( 150)

I originally had a lean on the Chiefs under 9 back in the spring, so I really like it now that it has been bet up to 9.5 (and 120 to boot!). Note the Cardinals struggled in both their red zone offense and defense last season, as this team is far too talented for those trends not to turn around. 4 defense with Fitzpatrick leading an already-balanced offense that adds running back Matt Forte. However, this team peaked early, and eventually the preseason loss of wide receiver Jordy Nelson reared its ugly head along with subpar offensive line play. They just need to keep doing what they’re doing in the regular season, and I don’t see too much of a falloff from the team that finished 12-4 a year ago. Note that this offense actually led the league last year in three-and-outs at 28 percent.

Arizona Cardinals (8-1)

Baltimore Ravens (15-1 to win AFC)

If only the Las Vegas oddsmakers would buy into the promises of Bills coach Rex Ryan. Importantly, the huge emergence of running back David Johnson is the catalyst to take the pressure off the deep passing game. The Cardinals are poised and motivated for the NFL title.


New York Giants Chicago Bears New Orleans Saints Arizona Cardinals Pittsburgh Steelers Jacksonville Jaguars


It’s not often you get 25-1 on the defending champions. Forever the extreme eternal optimist, Ryan’s Bills generally failed to deliver last season, especially on the defensive side of the football. They’ve fortified their defensive line with the additions of Chandler Jones and top draft choice Robert Nkemdiche to aid in the all-important NFL pressuring of the quarterback. Tony Romo got hurt again and the Cowboys’ odds were raised, but there is hope, as he’s projected to miss six to 10 weeks, and rookie Dak Prescott stepped up in the preseason. Importantly, the key injured cogs from last year are back. Look for the Ravens to return to their physical ways with a chance to match any AFC contender. The Bears and Lions continue to erode, while the Vikings obviously lose some luster with the loss of quarterback Teddy Bridgewater. Yes, the schedule lightens up after that, but Ryan might have one foot out the door.

Tuley: Teams I love (to bet on) Tuley: Teams I love (to fade) Tuley’s totals: Best over/under teams

If I like the Falcons to go to the playoffs (and especially to make a Super Bowl run), then I must love the over 7 at -130. The W/L/T that we used in our betting previews for each team and used CG Technology’s Week 1-16 lines to see how many times a team is expected to be favored has the Giants favored in only 8 games, so they would almost have to win all of those (plus any upsets) to get over 8.5.

Cincinnati Bengals (20-1)

Led by Aaron Rodgers, the Packers loomed especially large the first six weeks of last season. I still like them, but the “value” part isn’t quite there anymore at 14-1. And finally, their road schedule is void of high-caliber competition in Jacksonville, Atlanta, Tennessee, Washington, Philadelphia and their division rivals. Well, the oddsmakers obviously felt all along that he would return to the fold as the odds didn’t budge. Ryan is known for his defensive prowess, but the Bills dropped from fourth in yards allowed in 2014 to 19th in 2015

Pete Rose Admits He Bet on Baseball

After a six-month investigation by Major League Baseball, he agreed to leave baseball for life. “I don’t think he’s coming clean and that’s too bad … It’s just a pattern that you got into.”

Vincent thinks Rose is still holding out. I knew my team. Baseball don’t owe me a damn thing.”

“I said, ‘Pete, look, if you’re going to get, become reinstated into baseball, the next day, you can’t be at the sports book … “I watch every game every night that I can. You can’t be at the track. There’s no mileage in that.”

Rose says that even after he admitted to Selig that he had bet on baseball, the commissioner didn’t tell him that he was going to be reinstated.

Asked why he finally decide to admit he bet on baseball, Rose said, “It’s time to clean the slate, it’s time to take responsibility … “The farthest thing from my mind right now is making a bet on anything,” he said.


“I think what happens is you’re, at the time, you’re betting football and then, then what’s after football is basketball … and obviously the next thing that follows is baseball. Never,” he said.

He says betting against his own team was the last thing he considered, “because I want to win every game.”

“The only guy I could confess to that would help me was the commissioner of baseball,” he said. And it drives me crazy, like, when I put the Reds on, and there’s 20,000 empty seats,” he said. “Now, we knew it was the bookie because we had the number, we had the operator’s name and we also confirmed with the bookie that that’s when Rose called him.”

Rose says he regrets lying to baseball officials in 1989. They were just going to let me rot,” said Rose.

He hopes to be reinstated by Major League Baseball now that he has admitted his past mistakes and insists he no longer gambles illegally. Under the agreement, he would not have to admit or deny that he bet on Major League Baseball, and he could apply for reinstatement after a year.

How Bad Does He Want It?

“Pete Rose would go into the clubhouse at 7:10 and then call the bookie,” said Vincent. “I’m not going to go back to gambling, I mean, it’s as simple as that,” he said. It never altered the way I tried to run the game,” he said.

After denying it for nearly 15 years, sports legend Pete Rose is admitting that he bet on baseball and on his own team while managing the Cincinnati Reds.

But in 1989, reports emerged that Rose, then the Reds’ manager, was gambling on baseball. Maybe the fans want, want us to give him a second chance.”

Lingering Doubts

Rose formally applied to be reinstated in 1997 and finally got his chance to plead his case in November 2002, revealing the truth in a meeting with commissioner Bud Selig, in Milwaukee.

In his interview with Primetime, Rose says he bet on his own team, but never against it.

There’s little doubt Rose wants to get back into baseball, even manage his hometown team, the Reds. He said he didn’t think he was special, or above the law.

Rose recently bought part ownership in a race horse in California, and admits he spends time at the track and still bets on horse racing.

But Rose insists that never happened. I’m 14 years late.”. He set dozens of records — including breaking Ty Cobb’s record for the most hits ever.

“You don’t think you’re going to get caught,” he said. You being in gambling environments is not good. It’s like I died and, and they knew I died and they didn’t want to bring me back. “Why is he holding back? … “And it took me all these years to get face to face.”

“That was my mistake, not coming clean a lot earlier,” he said.

Nevertheless, he says he came away from the meeting with a good feeling: “I took this million-pound weight off my shoulders.” But he also says he got no guarantees. “I can be sitting out on a limb for the next 20 years.”

‘Time to Take Responsibility’

Even today, Rose still disputes some of the most damning evidence against him — such as phone records that suggest he placed bets from the clubhouse.

The baseball commissioner at the time, Bart Giamatti, died just a week after banning Rose.

The revelation is also expected to be included in Rose’s new autobiography published by Rodale, My Prison Without Bars, which is to be released the same day.

Rose will also appear live on Good Morning America on Friday.

And he also says he bet without taking into consideration how drastic the penalties would be, or believing he’d get caught. That achievement, on Sept. “I think the powers that be in baseball understand that hey, maybe the fans like this guy. “People have to understand I wish this would have never happened,” he said. 11, 1985, earned him a nine-minute ovation.

The admission could open the door for Rose to be reinstated by Major League Baseball and voted into the Baseball Hall of Fame.

“I couldn’t get a response from baseball for 12 years. “I never picked up my phone and called a bookmaker and bet on a baseball game from the clubhouse. Rose was banned from baseball in 1989, a move that made him ineligible for the Hall of Fame.

Rose told Gibson he took so long to make his admission because he “never had the opportunity to tell anybody that was going to help me.”

But he is adamant that he has kicked his gambling habit. “I want them to be like the Cubs, or like the Yankees, or like Boston.”

He helped set up the 2002 meeting between Rose and Selig, and says Rose is truly remorseful. “If the commissioner would ever give me a second chance there, there is no way I could let him down.”

Rose has been cheered when he’s appeared in front of fans in recent years, and says he thinks he has the fans behind him. I owe baseball. I think Pete would have been so much and still would be much better advised to tell everything he knows,” he said. And sitting here in my position, you’re just looking for a second chance.”

Over a three-decade career in baseball, Rose earned the nickname “Charlie Hustle” for his aggressive play and desire to win. But Schmidt also worries Rose is sending the wrong message with some of his actions.

“When I look you in the eye and tell you that that phase of my life is gone and will never come back, I mean that with all the sincerity in the world. Baseball wants to see you out of there,'” he said.

Rose’s friend and fellow former Major Leaguer Mike Schmidt supports Rose’s reinstatement into baseball and the Hall of Fame.

“I bet on baseball in 1987 and 1988,” the baseball great told ABCNEWS’ Charles Gibson in an interview on Primetime Thursday.

“I believed in my team. “But I can’t change it, it’s happened

College football coach dies after Parkinson’s battle

The coach offered him career advice and treated him like “part of his family.”

Even after they parted ways, Daniels wrote, Horton called him twice a month in the 14 years that passed since his last game at Boston College.

“In a football world where players are treated as numbers, you treated us as people, and stood out,” wrote Ryan Utzler, former running back at Boston College.

“They need to be who they are going to be but with the values that Don wanted them to have: education and perseverance.”

One day, after an NC State game, Horton’s limited dexterity prevented him from being able to button his shirt. Many of the letters noted the same thing and suggested why: Horton believed in his players, or his men, as he called them.

Their struggle with the disease also inspired Maura to make the lives of other Parkinson’s patients better.

“With Coach Horton, it was the way he made us feel outside the meeting rooms and practice fields,” said former Cleveland Browns offensive lineman Paul Zukauskas. As of Wednesday, the fund had raised more than $42,000 for the family.

Atlanta Falcons quarterback Matt Ryan, Tampa Bay Buccaneers offensive lineman Gosder Cherilus and former New York Giants defensive end Mathias Kiwanuka are among Horton’s former players who have donated to the cause.

“People can make such a difference in such a short time in life,” she said. I’m not letting in, because it’ll just be me single parenting. She asked friends, family and former players to write letters to Horton’s daughters, sharing their favorite memories of the coach.

Horton, 58, spent a decade coaching at Boston College and six years at North Carolina State University. He was diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease in 2006 and retired from the football field in 2013. He really took the time to get to know everybody.”

Horton’s wife hopes his legacy will be a lasting one, for their daughters and the world. It was his diagnosis that drove the Hortons to “complete the vision” of what their family was going to be, his wife said. “He was a guy that could be tough as a coach, but he’d ask how your family was doing. One of his players, Russell Wilson, now quarterback for the Seattle Seahawks, quietly came over to help the coach.

The story left Horton embarrassed, but it inspired his wife to create MagnaReady, a line of shirts with magnetic buttons for people with disabilities.

In addition to her work as the MagnaReady CEO and fighting to raise Parkinson’s awareness, Maura Horton is fighting to keep the memory of her husband alive for her girls.

A dozen or so former players sent the family letters describing what the coach meant to each of them.

“I knew he would look after me, just like he promised my mom, sister and grandmother he would with me being hundreds and hundreds of miles away from the only place I had ever known,” Daniels wrote.

Daniels said he felt safe and cared for. Daniels wrote about how Horton came to his high school in Indiana to meet him and how he later helped ease the player’s cross-country move to North Carolina.

“When I sat down with your dad that day at my school, I knew he was the coach that I wanted to follow,” he wrote to Horton’s daughters.

When Zukauskas, now a high school football coach in Massachusetts, learned of Horton’s illness, he called the coach’s wife, Maura Horton, to see how he could help.

Zukauskas, Ricky Brown and Al Washington, all former players from Boston College, set up a GoFundMe page in April to raise money for hospital expenses and an education fund for Horton’s two daughters.

“I can assure you that your dad, Don Horton, had a heart of solid gold. They sought in vitro fertilization, and Hadley was born.. Ten years after his diagnosis, Horton died surrounded by his two daughters and his wife.

One of the most emotional letters came from former Boston College player DuJuan Daniels, a national scout for the New England Patriots.

Hadley only knew him with this disease. You two, along with your mom, Maura, are forever entrenched in it,” Daniels wrote.

“He would be very proud of these young men for helping take care of his girls,” Maura Horton said.

When Horton went into a hospice home on May 15, family friend Melanie Walker offered a way for the girls to remember their father forever. I’m not going to give in,” the 46-year-old said between tears.

When Daniels suffered a career-ending knee injury years later, Horton was there to support him, he said. “I feel very protective of the girls, and I want them to know how loved they were and how special he was, to be able to be those kind of human beings that will change the world, too.”

If you knew Horton or want to share a message, the family asks that you email

Football wasn’t the only thing Horton cared about, he added: “He cared about school, he cared about your family, he cared about you, the kid he was welcoming into his family.

“I am happy to call you two my ‘little sisters.’ “

What worries Horton’s wife most is whether Libby, 13, and Hadley, 8, will know who their father really was.

“We keep saying over and over we’re going to be all right

List of Hobby Ideas

As we don’t wish to discriminate against an individual’s choice of hobbies, we thought of listing them in an alphabetical order.

Aerial photography

Horse riding



Figure skating

Learning tarot card reading

Social networking

Hip hop dance


Black & white photography


Casino games

Running and jogging

Home decorating

Roman history




Coloring pages

Leather crafts

Internet radio

Treasure hunting


Kite flying


A hobby is an activity that we all love and enjoy. However, there are some daredevils out there who love to ride motorcycles as well. For many, collecting postage stamps can be an enjoyable pastime, whereas for others, the interest lies in a variety of extreme sports such as snowboarding down icy mountain slopes. Regardless of the hobby (or hobbies) you select, try not to look at it as a way of filling your pocket. Why don’t we go over a more specific list, shall we?

A Detailed List of Hobbies

American football

Internet shopping

Coin collection

Ballet dancing



Nude photography



Ballroom dancing



Bird watching

Online auctions

Paper crafts

Ancient history


RV camping

Tap dance



Candle making

Creating wall art

Metal art

Disney vacations

Face painting

Latin dance

Internet home businesses

Belly dancing

Racing sports cars

Party planning


Jewelry making


Event planning

Feng shui



Online trading



Exploring online forums



Salsa dancing

Snowmobile racing

Playing video games

Paragliding. Sports photography

Space exploration


Rock climbing

Making clay sculptures



Space travel

Crystal healing

Listening to online music

Irish dancing


River rafting


Dog training


Flower arrangements


Geography and geology

Online chatting

Sports betting




Learning foreign languages

Digital photography

Comic books





Lawn care

Making gift baskets


Patio decorating

Greek mythology

Having a birdhouse

Body piercing


Designing ponds or water fountains

Palmistry and numerology

Wet plate photography



Indian dance styles


That was a long, long list of hobbies, wasn’t it? Before signing off, I leave you with a little bit of parting advice. That way, you will enjoy it much more and to the fullest.

Internet TV

Stamp collecting



Snow skiing


Spiritual healing



Wedding photography

Portrait photography

The following list is composed of a variety of hobbies for men, women, and kids of all ages. Now whichever hobby you may be interested in, it is essential to pursue it either for pleasure, enjoyment, leisure, or an altogether different degree of happiness and satisfaction.


Generic Hobbies

Detailed List

There is a popular saying which goes, “Lucky are those who have time after work for pursuing their hobby, but luckiest are those for whom work itself is a hobby”. Arts and crafts, sports, performing arts, culinary arts, social service, gardening, traveling, collecting souvenirs, etc., are a few things that come to mind when we think of the word ‘hobbies’. But is that all the list should include? Surely there has to be a larger variety of hobbies out there. Let it be a way of achieving inner satisfaction, peace of mind, and experiencing happiness. On that note, let us have a look at a comprehensive hobbies list, and one which includes a diverse list of hobbies and interests for people of all ages – children, adults, elders, retired citizens, etc.

Generic Hobbies

Cake decorating


Architectural photography


American history

Break dance


Parachute jumps


Playing board games

Wildlife photography


Mountain biking


Card games

Online games

Bungee jumping

Interior décor

Ice skating

Hot air balloon rides

Studying dream interpretations


Motorcycle racing

Ham radios

Playing PC games

Dinosaurs and fossils

Exploring caves

Street racing

Martial arts

Instant messaging


Charity work

Hang gliding

Landscape photography

Contemporary art

Sudoku puzzles


Powerboat racing

Speed skating


Human evolution

Amusement parks

Magic and optical illusions

Jet skiing

Mountain expeditions

Handcrafted jewelry

Aerobic exercises

Handwriting analysis

Scuba diving


Generally speaking, there are many types of hobbies that we get to see around us. Most people assume that typically, a majority of women will be interested in knitting or sewing as a hobby

College football

Division II primarily consists of smaller public and private institutions that offer fewer scholarships than those in Division I. Harvard University Sports Information Office. It was agreed that two games would be played on Harvard’s Jarvis baseball field in Cambridge, Massachusetts on May 14 and 15, 1874: one to be played under Harvard rules, another under the stricter rugby regulations of McGill. “Southeastern Conference”. April 27, 1924.

^ Dan McGugin (1907). It was the first time organized football played in the state of Tennessee.[20] The 29th also saw the first instance of the Army-Navy Game. McGill football game

The first game where one team scored over 100 points happened on October 25, 1884 when Yale routed Dartmouth 113-0. Retrieved March 8, 2015 – via The IAAUS was the original rule making body of college football, but would go on to sponsor championships in other sports. Division I FBS schools use replay in virtually all games; replay is rarely used in lower division games. Heisman Trophy. The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1889. Athletics were banned at the school in May 1892, but when the strict school president, Benjamin Arnold, died, President John Bloss reversed the ban.[82] Bloss’s son William started the first team, on which he served as both coach and quarterback.[83] The team’s first game was an easy 63-0 defeat over the home team, Albany College.

November 30, 1905, saw Chicago defeat Michigan 2 to 0. Associated Press. Though no longer a player, he remained a fixture at annual rules meetings for most of his life, and he personally selected an annual All-American team every year from 1889 through 1924. Nine out of ten Heisman Trophy winners in the 1950s were runners. The NFL has a similar rule in the final minute of the half, but it applies only to specified violations against the offensive team. Committee Urges Football Playoff”. open access publication - free to read

^ Patrick Dorsey (September 23, 2011). 2006. Sports Publishing LLC. The Wolverines: A Story of Michigan Football. (In the NFL overtime is decided by a 15-minute sudden-death quarter, and regular season games can still end in a tie if neither team scores. Archived from the original on June 24, 2007. The Rose Bowl included Roy Riegels’ wrong-way run. The first game was played on San Francisco’s Haight Street Grounds on March 19, 1892 with Stanford winning 14-10. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ a b “The History of Football”. The undefeated 1904 Vanderbilt team scored an average of 52.7 points per game, the most in college football that season, and allowed just four points.

Map of Division I (AA) FCS

Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Florida in 1901.[54] A 7-game series between intramural teams from Stetson and Forbes occurred in 1894. pp. 11-13. Later changes made it possible to snap the ball with the hands, either through the air or by a direct hand-to-hand pass.[16]Rugby league followed Camp’s example, and in 1906 introduced the play-the-ball rule, which greatly resembled Camp’s early scrimmage and center-snap rules. Wallace William Wade’s 1925 Alabama team won the 1926 Rose Bowl after receiving its first national title and William Alexander’s 1928 Georgia Tech team defeated California in the 1929 Rose Bowl. This “twenty” never played Columbia, but did play twice against Princeton.[24] Princeton won both games 6 to 0. In the post-season, if the teams are still tied, teams will play additional overtime periods until either team scores.)

Extra point tries are attempted from the three-yard line. The University of Alabama. Princeton Alumni Weekly. September 14, 1923.

^ cf. Princeton University students played a game called “ballown” as early as 1820. This article incorporates text from the McGill University Gazette (April 1874), two issues of The Montreal Gazette (14 May and 19 May 1874). The Oklahoma Football Encyclopedia: 2nd Edition. 1, 2007, ISBN 1-4042-1919-6.

^ Bailey, John Wendell (1924). In the 1950s, Notre Dame, which had a large national following, formed its own network to broadcast its games, but by and large the sport still retained a mostly regional following. Hickok Sports. In 1934, the rules committee removed two major penalties–a loss of five yards for a second incomplete pass in any series of downs and a loss of possession for an incomplete pass in the end zone–and shrunk the circumference of the ball, making it easier to grip and throw. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “100 years ago: Football fans enjoy mechanized reproduction of KU-MU game”. Consequently, Stanford is USC’s oldest existing rival.[86] The Big Game between Stanford and Cal on November 11, 1905 was the first played at Stanford Field, with Stanford winning 12-5.[63]

Early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional “mob football” played in England. “Yellow Jackets-Cumberland Score Was Record One; Tops the List According to Statistics Compiled Showing All Scores Past the Century Mark”. Georgia’s 1927 “dream and wonder team” defeated Yale for the first time. A Harvard tradition known as “Bloody Monday” began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes. In many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests. Retrieved 2007-05-19.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 18

^ John S. 17 (1).

^ Ratcliffe, Jerry (2008). Accessed March 11, 2015

^ Will Perry (1974). Retrieved 2009-02-18.

^ Nelson (1994), pp 48

^ “Big Ten History”. On November 25, 1911 Kansas and Missouri played the first homecoming football game.[107] The game was “broadcast” play-by-play over telegraph to at least 1,000 fans in Lawrence, Kansas.[108] It ended in a 3-3 tie. The game between West Virginia and Pittsburgh on October 8, 1921, saw the first live radio broadcast of a college football game when Harold W. Four new bowl games were created: the Orange Bowl, Sugar Bowl, the Sun Bowl in 1935, and the Cotton Bowl in 1937. Wilkinson and Hayes, along with Robert Neyland of Tennessee, oversaw a revival of the running game in the 1950s. Losses to an FBS team count against their playoff eligibility, while wins against a Division II opponent do not count towards playoff consideration. At the 1882 rules meeting, Camp proposed that a team be required to advance the ball a minimum of five yards within three downs. Pitt won 21-13.[109] On October 28, 1922, Princeton and Chicago played the first game to be nationally broadcast on radio. “Gridiron gridlock: Citing research, Tufts claims football history is on its side”. Baird as the head football coach for the Michigan Wolverines football team. Although the NCAA publishes lists of claimed FBS-level national champions in its official publications, it has never recognized an official FBS national championship; this policy continues even after the establishment of the College Football Playoff (which is not directly run by the NCAA) in 2014. For example, in years when not a part of the national championship, the Rose Bowl still hosted the Big Ten and Pac-10 champions.[147]








1917 saw the rise of another Southern team in Centre of Danville, Kentucky. Frank Suffel and Henry H. The two teams agreed to play under a set of rules called the “Concessionary Rules”, which involved Harvard conceding something to Yale’s soccer and Yale conceding a great deal to Harvard’s rugby. The coalition also excluded the Rose Bowl, arguably the most prestigious game in the nation, and two major conferences–the Pac-10 and Big Ten–meaning that it had limited success. This allowed the four other BCS bowls to use their normal selection process to select the teams in their games while the top two teams in the BCS rankings would play in the new National Championship Game.

Further notes

“The Invention Of Football”. The Terrors were a mix of Methodist college students and high schoolers.[58] The Sooners did not manage a single first down. These games are played from mid-December to early January and most of the later bowl games are typically considered more prestigious.

Football teams in Division I are further divided into the Bowl Subdivision (consisting of the largest programs) and the Championship Subdivision. By 1950, three more had joined that number and in 1970, there were still only eight major college bowl games. Football’s Greatest Coaches. Watterson, “Inventing Modern Football”, American Heritage magazine, June 1988

^ Vancil (2000), pp 17

^ Vancil (2000) pp 22

^ “NFL History 1911-1920″. Consisting mostly of schools from Texas, the conference saw back-to-back national champions with Texas Christian University (TCU) in 1938 and Texas A&M in 1939.[128][129] The Pacific Coast Conference (PCC), a precursor to the Pac-12 Conference (Pac-12), had its own back-to-back champion in the University of Southern California which was awarded the title in 1931 and 1932.[128] The Southeastern Conference (SEC) formed in 1932 and consisted mostly of schools in the Deep South.[130] As in previous decades, the Big Ten continued to dominate in the 1930s and 1940s, with Minnesota winning 5 titles between 1934 and 1941, and Michigan (1933, 1947, and 1948) and Ohio State (1942) also winning titles.[128][131]

Map of NAIA

Track and Field

Men’s indoor and outdoor

Women’s indoor and outdoor


Division I sports

Field hockey


Division III





On 25 December 1894, Amos Alonzo Stagg’s Chicago Maroons agreed to play Camp’s Stanford football team in San Francisco in the first postseason intersectional contest, foreshadowing the modern bowl game.[66][67] Future president Herbert Hoover was Stanford’s student financial manager.[68] Chicago won 24 to 4.[69] Stanford won a rematch in Los Angeles on December 29 by 12 to 0.[70]

Early games

Main article: 1869 college football season

Following the introduction of rugby-style rules to American football, Camp became a fixture at the Massasoit House conventions where rules were debated and changed. “CHC- Vandy Ties Michigan in 1922″.

^ “Alabama vs. 2007. A selection committee of college football experts decides the participating teams. Retrieved 2007-05-31.

^ Ours, Robert M. Retrieved 2007-06-01.

^ Celizic, Mike (December 9, 2006).

^ “Ten Yard Rule a Failure” New York Times, December 26, 1905

^ “New Football Rules Tested” Los Angeles Times, December 26, 1905

^ a b “University of Florida Health Science Center Libraries”. 2007. The History of Sports. They decided to play with 15 players on each team. While both games benefited from the advent of television, since the late 1950s, the NFL has become a nationally popular sport while college football has maintained strong regional ties.[138][139][140]

Further elated by the excitement of McGill’s version of football, Harvard challenged its closest rival, Yale, to which the Bulldogs accepted. Messrs Carney, Whittaker, Layton and others, who at that time constituted a majority of the male population of the University, called a meeting of the campus boys in the old medical building. If the kick was missed, the try did not score any points itself.

1.3 Scoring table

1.4 Expansion

1.4.1 East

1.4.2 Mid West

1.4.3 South

1.4.4 Southwest

1.4.5 Pacific Coast

1.4.6 Mountain West


Athletic directors




Map of NJCAA

The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics has jurisdiction over more than 80 college football teams, mostly in the midwest.

The National Junior College Athletic Association has jurisdiction over two-year institutions. Retrieved 2007-05-16.

^ Smith, R.A. The only way to score was still to bat or kick the ball through the opposing team’s goal, and the game was played in two 45 minute halves on fields 140 yards long and 70 yards wide. Bethune devised rules based on rugby football. Atlanta, Ga.: Whitman Publishing, LLC. The first of these happened on November 11, 1876 in Philadelphia and was the first intercollegiate game in the state of Pennsylvania.

An 1894 football game in Staunton, Virginia between VMI and Virginia Tech.

Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Minnesota on September 30, 1882 when Hamline was convinced to play Minnesota. Therefore, college football is generally considered to be the second tier of American football in the United States; one step ahead of high school competition, and one step below professional competition. Yet others have countered that the increased number of games has increased exposure and revenue for a greater number of schools, and see it as a positive development.[146]

Power Five – Five of the six AQ conferences of the BCS era, specifically the ACC, Big Ten, Big 12, Pac-12, and SEC. Incidentally, rugby was to make a similar change to its scoring system 10 years later.[16]

American football historian Parke H. From Maverick to Mainstream: Cumberland School of Law, 1847-1997. The inaugural champion was Ohio State University.[152] The College Football Playoff replaced the Bowl Championship Series, which had been used as the selection method to determine the national championship game participants since in the 1998 season.

College football expanded greatly during the last two decades of the 19th century. p. 53.

^ Becky Riddle, “Stoll Field”, ExploreKYHistory, accessed February 4, 2015,

^ Jim L. Notre Dame, one of the biggest passing teams of the decade, saw a substantial decline in success; the 1950s were the only decade between 1920 and 1990 when the team did not win at least a share of the national title. Retrieved 30 May 2012.

^ “Likes Yost’s Manner: President Jordan of Leland Stanford University Gives His Opinion of the Coach”. Rockne and quarterback Gus Dorais made innovative use of the forward pass, still at that point a relatively unused weapon, to defeat Army 35-13 and helped establish the school as a national power. The 1917 team was the first national champion from the South, led by a powerful backfield. 100 Years of Golden Gopher Football. Under the current playoff structure, the top eight teams are all seeded, and receive a bye week in the first round. Teams can also go for “the two-point conversion” which is when a team will line up at the three-yard line and try to score. Stanford played its 1915, 1916, and 1917 “Big Games” as rugby union against Santa Clara and California’s football “Big Game” in those years was against Washington, but both schools desired to restore the old traditions.[87] The onset of American involvement in World War I gave Stanford an out: in 1918, the Stanford campus was designated as the Students’ Army Training Corps headquarters for all of California, Nevada, and Utah, and the commanding officer, Sam M. At the first The Game (as the annual contest between Harvard and Yale came to be named) the future “father of American football” Walter Camp was among the 2000 spectators in attendance. Its result was “a great surprise to the sporting world.”[117] Commodore fans celebrated by throwing some 3,000 seat cushions onto the field. Before they were nicknamed the “Trojans”, they were known as the USC Methodists.

Cross Country



In 1906 Vanderbilt defeated Carlisle 4 to 0, the result of a Bob Blake field goal.[115][116] In 1907 Vanderbilt fought Navy to a 6 to 6 tie. It was the first game in the south decided by a field goal.[49] Heisman later used the trick against Pop Warner’s Georgia team. The man with the ball could be tackled, although hitting, tripping, “hacking” (shin-kicking) and other unnecessary roughness was prohibited. “Yale Yearly Results (1880-1884)”. Retrieved June 11, 2011.

^ “NCAA Division I Football Championship”. San Francisco Chronicle. The rules committee legalized the forward pass instead. Wade’s Alabama again won a national championship and Rose Bowl in 1930.

At the Division I FBS level, teams must earn the right to be bowl eligible by winning at least 6 games during the season (teams that play 13 games in a season, which is allowed for Hawaii and any of its home opponents, must win 7 games). Dissatisfied with what seemed to him to be a disorganized mob, he proposed his first rule change at the first meeting he attended in 1878: a reduction from fifteen players to eleven. The best collegiate players will typically declare for the professional draft after 3 to 4 years of collegiate competition, with the NFL holding its annual draft every spring. p. 4.

^ “Stanford’s Football Coach Has Arrived”. In addition, if the defensive team gains possession, but then moves backwards into the end zone and is stopped, a one-point safety will be awarded to the offense, although, unlike a real safety, the offense kicks off, opposed to the team charged with the safety. Retrieved April 6, 2011.

^ “The History of Homecoming”. Retrieved 2007-05-16.

^ “Notre Dame Football :: UND.COM :: The Official Site of Notre Dame Athletics”. For its first thirty years, the RMAC was considered a major conference equivalent to today’s Division I, before 7 larger members left and formed the Mountain States Conference (also called the Skyline Conference).

The 1899 Sewanee Tigers are one of the all-time great teams of the early sport. British Columbia Rugby Union. Yale, under pressure from the city of New Haven, banned the play of all forms of football in 1860.[3]

Kickoff during the 1916 Colorado – Utah game

On Thanksgiving Day 1903, a game was scheduled in Montgomery, Alabama between the best teams from each region of the Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association for an “SIAA championship game”, pitting Cumberland against Heisman’s Clemson. Starting with the third overtime, a one-point PAT field goal after a touchdown is no longer allowed, forcing teams to attempt a two-point conversion after a touchdown. He also lacked the authority to abolish football and was, in fact, actually a fan of the sport and wanted to preserve it. The Big East split into two leagues in 2013; the schools that did not play FBS football reorganized as a new non-football Big East Conference, while the FBS member schools that remained in the original structure joined with several new members and became the American Athletic Conference. The NFL, which previously treated the ball as dead during a conversion attempt–meaning that the attempt ended when the defending team gained possession of the football–adopted the college rule in 2015.

The two-minute warning is not used in college football, except in rare cases where the scoreboard clock has malfunctioned and is not being used.

There is an option to use instant replay review of officiating decisions. 2006-2007 Texas Almanac. Warner picked up the trick and later used it at Cornell against Penn State in 1897.[50] He then used it in 1903 at Carlisle against Harvard and garnered national attention.

Glenn “Pop” Warner coached at several schools throughout his career, including the University of Georgia, Cornell University, University of Pittsburgh, Stanford University, and Temple University.[121] One of his most famous stints was at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, where he coached Jim Thorpe, who went on to become the first president of the National Football League, an Olympic Gold Medalist, and is widely considered one of the best overall athletes in history.[122][123] Warner wrote one of the first important books of football strategy, Football for Coaches and Players, published in 1927.[124] Though the shift was invented by Stagg, Warner’s single wing and double wing formations greatly improved upon it; for almost 40 years, these were among the most important formations in football. First, Vanderbilt; second, Sewanee, a might good second;” and that Aubrey Lanier “came near winning the Vanderbilt game by his brilliant dashes after receiving punts.”[113]Bob Blake threw the final pass to center Stein Stone, catching it near the goal amongst defenders. Inside”) and Glenn Davis (known as “Mr. A (October 1913 – March 1914). The team went 12-0, outscoring opponents 322 to 10. Sports Publishing LLC.College Football Data Warehouse: Oregon Yearly Results 1894

^ College Football Data Warehouse: Oregon Yearly Results 1894

^ College Football Data Warehouse: Oregon Yearly Results 1895

^ Forgard, Benjamin. Retrieved March 13, 2015 – via Before this meeting, each school had its own set of rules and games were usually played using the home team’s own particular code. LA 84 Foundation: 54-57. As reasons for the change, the school cited rule change back to American football, the overwhelming desire of students and supporters to play American football, interest in playing other East Coast and Midwest schools, and a patriotic desire to play an “American” game.[87] California’s return to American football increased the pressure on Stanford to also change back in order to maintain the rivalry. A football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear.

As it grew beyond its regional affiliations in the 1930s, college football garnered increased national attention. Rather than simply a regional team, Rockne’s “Fighting Irish” became famous for barnstorming and played any team at any location. In the NFL the clock does not explicitly stop for a first down.

Overtime was introduced in 1996, eliminating ties. Outside”) both won the Heisman Trophy, in 1945 and 1946 respectively. Due to scantness of records of the prior matches some will claim Virginia v. A rematch was played at Princeton a week later under Princeton’s own set of rules (one notable difference was the awarding of a “free kick” to any player that caught the ball on the fly, which was a feature adopted from the Football Association’s rules; the fair catch kick rule has survived through to modern American game). Walter, who would enroll at Yale the next year, was torn between an admiration for Harvard’s style of play and the misery of the Yale defeat, and became determined to avenge Yale’s defeat. “Why California Likes Rugby”. p. 128.

^ Langum, David J. Retrieved 2007-05-19.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 16

^ Men’s Intercollegiate Athletic Department of the University of Minnesota (1981). However, after a few years, the school began to feel the isolation of its newly adopted sport, which was not spreading as many had hoped. Starting with the 2015 season, the NFL uses the 15-yard line as the line of scrimmage for placekick attempts, but the two-yard line for two-point attempts. “Changing seasons: Y. But no record has been found of the score of this contest. 2.

^ a b “A History of Washington and Lee Athletics”. The Chicago Daily Tribune called it “the first rugby-football game to be played west of the Alleghenies.”[31] Other Midwestern schools soon followed suit, including the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, and the University of Minnesota. In the first two seasons of the CFP, the Group of Five has yet to place a team in a semifinal. National Collegiate Athletic Association: 71-75.

^ Davis, Parke H. Retrieved 2007-05-31.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 39

^ Vancil (2000), pp 41-45

^ MacCambridge (1999) pp 172

^ MacCambridge (1999), pp 171

^ Bennett (1976) pp 56

^ Barnidge, Tom (2000). Pantops Academy November 13, 1887 as the first game in Virginia.

Don Hutson in 1940.

The 1893 Stanford American football team



The first intercollegiate game in the state of Vermont happened on November 6, 1886 between Dartmouth and Vermont at Burlington, Vermont. Nixon, also the school’s second captain. Nixon (1898-12-16). Arlin announced that year’s Backyard Brawl played at Forbes Field on KDKA. 16: 583. Pop Warner’s Pittsburgh Panthers were also undefeated, but declined a challenge by Heisman to a game. 63: 742-750.

^ “History”. Rutgers won by a score of six to four. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

“NFL History by Decade: 1911-1920.” National Football League. “Tiny Maxwell and the Crisis of 1905: The Making of a Gridiron Myth” (PDF). Royal went on to teach the offense to other coaches, including Bear Bryant at Alabama, Chuck Fairbanks at Oklahoma and Pepper Rodgers at UCLA; who all adapted and developed it to their own tastes.[142] The strategic opposite of the wishbone is the spread offense, developed by professional and college coaches throughout the 1960s and 1970s. On 1 January 1902, Yost’s dominating 1901 Michigan Wolverines football team agreed to play a 3-1-2 team from Stanford University in the inaugural “Tournament East-West football game what is now known as the Rose Bowl Game by a score of 49-0 after Stanford captain Ralph Fisher requested to quit with eight minutes remaining.

A pass is ruled complete if one of the receiver’s feet is inbounds at the time of the catch. Although before the mid-1920s most national powers came from the Northeast or the Midwest, the trend changed when several teams from the South and the West Coast achieved national success. The rules that they agreed upon were essentially those of rugby union at the time with the exception that points be awarded for scoring a try, not just the conversion afterwards (extra point). The IAAUS would get its current name of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) in 1910,[98] which still sets rules governing the sport.[98][99]

The style of football playing has altered considerably; by the old rules, all men in front of the runner with the ball, were offside, consequently we could not send backs through and break the line ahead of the ball as is done at present. The Walter Camp Foundation. Rutgers University. In the NFL, only scoring plays, turnovers, the final 2:00 of each half and all overtime periods are reviewed, and coaches are issued two challenges (with the option for a 3rd if the first two are successful).

Starting in the 2012 season, the ball is placed on the 25-yard line following a touchback on a kickoff. “Sport Slants”. Retrieved 2010-01-26.

^ “The History of Walter Camp”. of C. p. 15 – via Google books. “College Football in Kansas”. December 30, 1894. 2007. Smith. 2001. An invitation was also extended to Los Angeles High School.[62]




A college football game between Texas Tech and Navy

1904 saw big coaching hires in the south: Mike Donahue at Auburn, John Heisman at Georgia Tech, and Dan McGugin at Vanderbilt were all hired that year. Parker, decreed that American football was the appropriate athletic activity to train soldiers and rugby union was dropped.[87]



Harvard vs. Yale wins 3-0, Tommy Sherman scoring the first goal and Lew Irwin the other two.[22]

The first nighttime football game was played in Mansfield, Pennsylvania on September 28, 1892 between Mansfield State Normal and Wyoming Seminary and ended at halftime in a 0-0 tie.[29] The Army-Navy game of 1893 saw the first documented use of a football helmet by a player in a game. August 17, 1999.

^ Alexander M. Outing. Retrieved March 24, 2015 – via Though some schools play a run-based version of the spread, its most common use is as a passing offense designed to “spread” the field both horizontally and vertically.[143] Some teams have managed to adapt with the times to keep winning consistently. This opened up the BCS to two additional at-large teams. “From Football to Rugby–and Back, 1906-1919: The University of California-Stanford University Response to the “Football Crisis of 1905″” (PDF). Retrieved December 27, 2011.

^ Sciullo Jr, Sam, ed. Chicago Tribune. colleges or universities – Papa John’s Cardinal Stadium at the University of Louisville and FAU Stadium at Florida Atlantic University – consist entirely of chairback seating.)

In 1998, a new system was put into place called the Bowl Championship Series. In 1921 Bo McMillin-led Centre upset defending national champion Harvard 6 to 0 in what is widely considered one of the greatest upsets in college football history. Tar Heel Times. Grantland Rice cited this event as the greatest thrill he ever witnessed in his years of watching sports.[112] Vanderbilt coach Dan McGugin in Spalding’s Football Guide’s summation of the season in the SIAA wrote “The standing. p. 5. The trophy recognizes the nation’s “most outstanding” college football player and has become one of the most coveted awards in all of American sports.[134]

The first USC football squad (1888). Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ White, Gordon (January 8, 1979). Rockne returned to coach the team in 1918, and devised the powerful Notre Dame Box offense, based on Warner’s single wing. Los Angeles Times. p. D5.

^ a b “College Bowl Games”. The series included the four most prominent bowl games (Rose Bowl, Orange Bowl, Sugar Bowl, Fiesta Bowl), while the National Championship game rotated each year between one of these venues. In 1914, the first roughing-the-passer penalty was implemented. In 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed the Bloody Monday had to go. In the NFL both feet must be inbounds.

A player is considered down when any part of his body other than the feet or hands touches the ground or when the ball carrier is tackled or otherwise falls and loses possession of the ball as he contacts the ground with any part of his body, with the sole exception of the holder for field goal and extra point attempts. p. 4.

^ “USC Football Heads To Bay Area To Face No. D. In 1881, the field was reduced in size to its modern dimensions of 120 by 531/3 yards (109.7 by 48.8 meters). p. 14.

^ Southern Inter-Collegiate Athletic Association (PDF). Nixon was elected president and Holden secretary of the association.



In the early 1930s, the college game continued to grow, particularly in the South, bolstered by fierce rivalries such as the “South’s Oldest Rivalry”, between Virginia and North Carolina and the “Deep South’s Oldest Rivalry”, between Georgia and Auburn. Michigan coach Fielding Yost and Vanderbilt coach Dan McGugin were brothers-in-law, and the latter the protege of the former. Handbook of Southern Intercollegiate Track and Field Athletics. Bill Traughber. It is in college football where a player’s performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. Camp’s innovations in the area of point scoring influenced rugby union’s move to point scoring in 1890. The game was won by Tufts 1-0[9] Harvard beat McGill in the “Boston Game” on the Thursday and held McGill to a 0-0 tie on the Friday. College Football Historical Society. At all other levels of football, plus all other touchback situations under NCAA rules, the ball is placed on the 20.

Among other rule changes in 2007, kickoffs were moved from the 35-yard line back five yards to the 30-yard line, matching a change that the NFL had made in 1994. The games remained largely unorganized until the 19th century, when intramural games of football began to be played on college campuses. Harts had left to prospect for gold in the Arctic.[59][60] Organized football was first played in the territory on November 29, 1894 between the Oklahoma City Terrors and Oklahoma City High School. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was (Sir) William Mulock, later Chancellor of the school. Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as an undrafted free agent.

The BCS ended after the 2013 season and, since the 2014 season, the FBS national champion has been determined by a four-team tournament known as the College Football Playoff (CFP). The Anatomy of a Game. For example, the Big Eight and SEC champions could never meet, since they were contractually bound to different bowl games. Davis ’93 On Harvard Football”. The Walter Camp Football Foundation continues to select All-American teams in his honor.[17]

This system has been challenged often, beginning with an NCAA committee proposal in 1979 to have a four-team playoff following the bowl games.[153] However, little headway was made in instituting a playoff tournament until 2014, given the entrenched vested economic interests in the various bowls. Football, the American intercollegiate game. On October 12, 1929, Yale lost to Georgia in Sanford Stadium in its first trip to the south. (California’s two-year institutions are not under NJCAA jurisdiction and only compete for state championships.)

Club football, a sport in which student clubs run the teams instead of the colleges themselves, is overseen by two organizations: the National Club Football Association and the Intercollegiate Club Football Federation. The motion was rejected at that time but passed in 1880. The Coalition lasted for three years; however, several scheduling issues prevented much success; tie-ins still took precedence in several cases. Eugene, Oregon: McCann Communications Corp. Journal of Sport History. The wishbone is a run-heavy offense that depends on the quarterback making last second decisions on when and to whom to hand or pitch the ball to. 18, No. During that game, a large group of men and boys, who were observing from the roof of the nearby S.F. Baylor Athletics (Baylor University). Professional Football Researchers Association. College Football Data Warehouse. This computer system, which factored in newspaper polls, online polls, coaches’ polls, strength of schedule, and various other factors of a team’s season, led to much dispute over whether the two best teams in the country were being selected to play in the National Championship Game.

and championships

Led by coach Fielding H. Harvard, however, preferred to play a rougher version of football called “the Boston Game” in which the kicking of a round ball was the most prominent feature though a player could run with the ball, pass it, or dribble it (known as “babying”). Bradbury Robinson, playing for visionary coach Eddie Cochems at Saint Louis University, threw the first legal pass in a September 5, 1906, game against Carroll College at Waukesha. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ McCann, Michael C. Retrieved 2007-05-19.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 20

^ “WorldCat entry for Football for Coaches and Players”. The other three current FBS independents, Army, BYU, and Massachusetts, are also considered to be part of this group. College Football Data Warehouse. The game was essentially soccer with 20-man sides, played on a field 400 by 250 feet. Retrieved 13 October 2011.

^ “Tarheels Credited With Throwing First Forward Pass”. Current Events, 00113492, 11/14/2011, Vol. 256 players are selected annually. The American retained the Big East’s automatic BCS bowl bid for the 2013 season, but lost this status in the CFP era.

The Virginia Cavaliers (orange and blue home uniforms) play against the Penn State Nittany Lions (all-white away uniforms) in 2012 in Scott Stadium.

9 Controversy

10 College football outside the United States

11 Awards

12 See also

13 References

14 Further notes

15 External links

15.1 Statistics

15.2 Rules

15.3 Maps

2 Official rules and notable rule distinctions

3 Organization

4 Coaching

5 National championships

6 Team maps

7 Playoff games

8 Bowl games

8.1 Division I FBS National Championship Games

Listen to this article (info/dl)


Penn’s Athletic Association was looking to pick “a twenty” to play a game of football against Columbia. November 22, 1893.

^ a b Migdol, Gary (1997). Two teams of 25 players attempted to score by kicking the ball into the opposing team’s goal. As part of his single and double wing formations, Warner was one of the first coaches to effectively utilize the forward pass. Deseret News. Archived from the original on September 15, 2007. The next year Vanderbilt fought Michigan to a scoreless tie at the inaugural game at Dudley Field (now Vanderbilt Stadium), the first stadium in the South made exclusively for college football. Nelson. The resultant collisions often led to serious injuries and sometimes even death.[93] Georgia fullback Richard Von Albade Gammon notably died on the field from concussions received against Virginia in 1897, causing Georgia, Georgia Tech, and Mercer to suspend their football programs.

NCAA Division I Football Championship[151] – playoff for determining the national champion at the second highest level of college football, Division I FCS, from 1978 to present.

NCAA Division I FCS Consensus Mid-Major Football National Championship – awarded by poll from 2001- to 2007 for a subset of the second highest level of play in college football, FCS.




American college football

games 1930-2010[144]


# of games




















College football playoff consist of 2 bowls and a champ game

Map of NCAA Division II

Camp’s new scrimmage rules revolutionized the game, though not always as intended. As conferences became contractually bound to certain bowl games (a situation known as a tie-in), match-ups that guaranteed a consensus national champion became increasingly rare. (Only two stadiums owned by U.S. The Boston Globe.

^ a b c d e f “Camp and His Followers: American Football 1876-1889″ (PDF). Baker beat Kansas 22-9.[19] On the 27th, Vanderbilt played Nashville (Peabody) at Athletic Park and won 40-0. Known as the “Iron Men”, with just 13 men they had a six-day road trip with five shutout wins over Texas A&M; Texas; Tulane; LSU; and Ole Miss. It ended when Stanford requested and Michigan agreed to end it with 8 minutes on the clock. The next year in 1901, Yost was hired by Charles A. This game is commonly referred to as “the game that changed the south.”[120] Wade followed up the next season with an undefeated record and Rose Bowl tie. It was his last game as Clemson head coach.[57]



American football at Oregon State University started in 1893 shortly after athletics were initially authorized at the college. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ Greg Roza, Football in the SEC (Southeastern Conference), p. The U of C should henceforth lead the state and possibly the west in athletic sports.


Single-division sports

Ice hockey




See also: History of American football and History of Canadian football

Track and Field

Men’s indoor and outdoor

Women’s indoor and outdoor

Harvard-McGill (1874)

Main article: 1874 Harvard vs. Princeton won 21-18 in a hotly contested game which had Princeton dubbed the “Team of Destiny.”[110]

Following the enormous success of the 1958 NFL Championship Game, college football no longer enjoyed the same popularity as the NFL, at least on a national level. Pomona College was invited to enter, but declined to do so. It took place at Hamilton Park in New Haven and was the first game in New England. The game featured the season’s two best defenses and included a goal line stand by Vanderbilt to preserve the tie. Retrieved 2007-06-01.

^ “Kickoffs from 30 yard line could create more returns, injuries”. Retrieved 2008-10-06.

^ a b c Bennett (1976), pp 20-21

^ “ Top N. Minnesota won 2 to 0.[36] It was the first game west of the Mississippi River.




^ While Still the Nation’s Favorite Sport, Professional Football Drops in Popularity – Baseball and college football are next in popularity at the Harris Interactive website, accessed 28 January 2010.

^ “University of Florida Health Science Center Libraries” (PDF). (Unlike in the United States, no junior colleges play football in Canada, and the sanctioning body for junior college athletics in Canada, CCAA, does not sanction the sport.) However, amateur football outside of colleges is played in Canada, such as in the Canadian Junior Football League. Football came back in 1872, when Columbia played Yale for the first time. ISBN 1-57167-116-1. 2007. Stone. By the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport later known as Rugby football. It was during Rockne’s tenure that the annual Notre Dame-University of Southern California rivalry began. p. 70.

^ Gary Migdol. The Lions traveled from New York City to New Brunswick on November 12, 1870 and were defeated by Rutgers 6 to 3. How to Scout Football. On October 20, 1873, representatives from Yale, Columbia, Princeton, and Rutgers met at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in New York City to codify the first set of intercollegiate football rules. Evolvements of Early American Foot Ball: Through the 1890/91 Season. ISBN 978-0873970556.

^ “Harvard Football Timeline”. “Section 11–Extra Points.” 2008 Football Statisticians’ Manual. William Dudley, a chemistry professor at Vanderbilt.[45] The original members were Alabama, Auburn, Georgia, Georgia Tech, North Carolina, Sewanee, and Vanderbilt. Louis Post-Dispatch photograph of Brad Robinson, who threw the first legal forward pass and was the sport’s first triple threat

Bronko Nagurski Trophy

Dick Butkus Award

Jim Thorpe Award

Doak Walker Award

Campbell Trophy

Johnny Unitas Golden Arm Award

Home Depot Award

Ray Guy Award

John Mackey Award

Division II

Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as “football”, played at public schools in England in the mid-19th century. It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. 2007-02-14. “Princeton Yearly Results (1880-1884)”. The Dallas Morning News. Each school played its own variety of football. The game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges.



Violence, formation of NCAA

On September 27, 1902, Georgetown beat Navy 4 to 0. If they are successful, they receive two points, if they are not, then they receive zero points. Atlanta Constitution. MSN Encarta. The term “Big Game” was first used in 1900, when it was played on Thanksgiving Day in San Francisco. Lincoln Evening Journal. Beats Throop By a Score of 22 to 12 at Pasadena”. Rather than increase scoring, which had been Camp’s original intent, the rule was exploited to maintain control of the ball for the entire game, resulting in slow, unexciting contests. Retrieved 2007-08-23.

^ “Knute Rockne”. University of Illinois. This game’s violence caused such an outcry that no games at all were played in 1871. The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1889. In 1918, the rules on eligible receivers were loosened to allow eligible players to catch the ball anywhere on the field–previously strict rules were in place allowing passes to only certain areas of the field.[103] Scoring rules also changed during this time: field goals were lowered to three points in 1909[7] and touchdowns raised to six points in 1912.[104]

In 1940, for the highest level of college football, there were only five bowl games (Rose, Orange, Sugar, Sun, and Cotton). Kicked tries count as one point. Heisman pressed hardest for Cumberland to get the claim of champion. Division III institutions also field teams, but do not offer any scholarships.

1.7 From a regional to a national sport (1930-1958)

1.8 Modern college football (since 1958)

1.8.1 Growth of bowl games

1.8.2 Bowl Championship Series

1.8.3 College Football Playoff

Homosexuality in American football

List of defunct college football teams

List of defunct college football conferences

List of historically significant college football games

List of sports attendance figures

Sports injury

Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Virginia and the south on November 2, 1873 in Lexington between Washington and Lee and VMI. Paul Hornung, Notre Dame quarterback, did, however, win the Heisman in 1956, becoming the only player from a losing team ever to do so.[136][137]

Map of NCAA Division III




From a regional to a national sport (1930-1958)

Map of CCCAA

The beginnings of the contemporary Southeastern Conference and Atlantic Coast Conference start in 1894. The CFP is a four-team tournament whose participants are chosen and seeded by a 13-member selection committee. “Vandy’s Great Victory Will Live In History”. For the 2009 season, there were 34 bowl games, so 68 of the 120 Division I FBS teams were invited to play at a bowl. “Yale’s Walter Camp and 1870s Rugby.” The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1889. “Teddy Roosevelt’s Role in the 1905 Football Controversy”. 2007. Echoes of Oklahoma Sooners Football: The Greatest Stories Ever Told. With more national venues and increased available revenue, the bowls saw an explosive growth throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Honus Craig then ran in the winning touchdown.

No sport is wholesome in which ungenerous or mean acts which easily escape detection contribute to victory.

On November 6, 1869, Rutgers University faced Princeton University (then known as the College of New Jersey) in the first-ever game of intercollegiate football. It was agreed that the No.1 and No.2 ranked teams gave up their prior bowl tie-ins and were guaranteed to meet in the national championship game, which rotated between the three participating bowls. For other uses, see College football (disambiguation).

“NCAA football” redirects here. The President’s sons were also playing football at the college and secondary levels at the time.[95]. ESPN. and Pacific Glass Works, fell into the fiery interior of the building when the roof collapsed, resulting in 13 dead and 78 injured.[71][72][73][74][75] On December 4, 1900, the last victim of the disaster (Fred Lilly) died, bringing the death toll to 22; and, to this day, the “Thanksgiving Day Disaster” remains the deadliest accident to kill spectators at a U.S. Traditional tie-ins were maintained for schools and bowls not part of the national championship. Retrieved 2007-05-15.

^ Vancil (2000) pp 24

^ “Marching Band History”. reprinted from Official Super Bowl XXXIII Game Program.

^ Vancil (2000) pp 46-48

^ Vancil (2000), pp 56

^ Bennett (1976), Appendix pp 209-217

^ a b Call, Jeff (December 20, 2006). “N.C.A.A. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

The National Collegiate Athletic Association. The term “bowl” originates from the shape of the Rose Bowl stadium in Pasadena, California, which was built in 1923 and resembled the Yale Bowl, built in 1915. The Kingsport Times. Bernstein. Retrieved March 27, 2015 – via This situation continued until 1984, when several schools brought a suit under the Sherman Antitrust Act; the Supreme Court ruled against the NCAA and schools are now free to negotiate their own television deals. Later in 1870, Princeton and Rutgers played again with Princeton defeating Rutgers 6-0. May 8, 1900. November 7, 1886. The Bowl Subdivision has historically not used an organized tournament to determine its champion, and instead teams compete in post-season bowl games. (2007). This is where the name came into use, as it became known as the Rose Bowl Game. p. 5.

^ A Ghastly Holocaust: Football Spectators Plunged into Molten Glass, The (Adelaide) Advertiser, (Friday 11 January 1901), p.6.

^ Twenty Score Persons Make Awful Plunge: Seventeen People Meet Most Awful Death: Two San Jose Men Die Amid Sizzling Shrieking Human Mass in Collapsed Factory at Big Game, The (San Jose) Evening News, (Friday 30 November 1900), p.1, p.5.

^ Through a Roof to Death, The (Crawfordsville) Daily News-Review, (Friday, 30 November 1900), p.2.

^ Spectators Fell Into Molten Glass: Thirteen Dead, One Hundred Injured by Collapse of a Roof Overlooking the Stanford-Berkeley Game at San Francisco, The (Spokane) Spokesman-Review, (Friday 30 November 1900), p.1.

^ Death Reaps a Dread Harvest of Lives and Plunges City into Gloom, The San Francisco Call, (Friday, 30 November 1900), p.2.

^ Eskanazi, J., “Sudden Death: Boys Fell to Their Doom in S.F.’s Forgotten Disaster” San Francisco Weekly News, 15 August 2012

^ a b “Timeline”. Playing its first game on November 14 of that year against the Alliance Athletic Club, in which USC gained a 16-0 victory. The game gradually gained a following, and the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, the first recorded non-university football club in Canada.

Star players that emerged in the early 20th century include Jim Thorpe, Red Grange, and Bronko Nagurski; these three made the transition to the fledgling NFL and helped turn it into a successful league. In 1927, his complex shifts led directly to a rule change whereby all offensive players had to stop for a full second before the ball could be snapped. A violation will be a 5-yard penalty.

Water polo



The Big Game between Stanford and California was played as rugby union from 1906 to 1914.

Heisman Trophy

Maxwell Award

Walter Camp Award

Outland Trophy

Associated Press Player of the Year

Johnny Rodgers Award

Fred Biletnikoff Award

Lou Groza Award

Lombardi Award



A college football game between Colorado State and Air Force

College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities, colleges, and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities. On November 13, 1875, Yale and Harvard played each other for the first time ever, where Harvard won 4-0. Boston Daily Globe.

The first bowl game was the 1902 Rose Bowl, played between Michigan and Stanford; Michigan won 49-0. The highest seed receives automatic home field advantage. Retrieved October 11, 2009.

“College Football Rules Changes” (PDF). From 1901 to 1905, Michigan had a 56-game undefeated streak that included a 1902 trip to play in the first college football bowl game, which later became the Rose Bowl Game. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “FBS College Football History”. Other games came along and used the term “bowl”, whether the stadium was shaped like a bowl or not.

In May 1900, Yost was hired as the football coach at Stanford University,[84] and, after traveling home to West Virginia, he arrived in Palo Alto, California, on August 21, 1900.[85] Yost led the 1900 Stanford team to a 7-2-1, outscoring opponents 154 to 20. McGill

This audio file was created from a revision of the “College football” article dated 2006-05-29, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. Following the season, Stanford captain John Whittemore wrote to Yale coach Walter Camp asking him to recommend a coach for Stanford. The trophy was designed by sculptor Frank Eliscu and modeled after New York University player Ed Smith. 40: 717-724. Since there was no national championship game, the final version of the AP poll was used to determine who was crowned the National Champion of college football.[132]

The 1894 Harvard-Yale game, known as the “Hampden Park Blood Bath”, resulted in crippling injuries for four players; the contest was suspended until 1897. Though he lectured on eliminating and reducing injuries, he never threatened to ban football. Leggett, based on the Football Association’s first set of rules, which were an early attempt by the former pupils of England’s public schools, to unify the rules of their public schools games and create a universal and standardized set of rules for the game of football and bore little resemblance to the American game which would be developed in the following decades. Davis. The WAC, after seeing all but two of its football members leave, dropped football after the 2012 season. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was once again played at Harvard. Spectators from Princeton also carried the game back home, where it quickly became the most popular version of football.[3]

Knute Rockne rose to prominence in 1913 as an end for the University of Notre Dame, then a largely unknown Midwestern Catholic school. It also became increasingly violent. Georgia Tech, led by Heisman protege William Alexander, gave the dream and wonder team its only loss, and the next year were national and Rose Bowl champions. Journal of Sport History, Vol. Each year, one of the four bowl games served as a national championship game. Yale initially refused to join this association because of a disagreement over the number of players to be allowed per team (relenting in 1879) and Rutgers were not invited to the meeting. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “History of the Football Helmet” from Past Time Sports. The system still did not include the Big Ten, Pac-10, or the Rose Bowl, and thus still lacked the legitimacy of a true national championship.[145][147] However, one positive side effect is that if there were three teams at the end of the season vying for a national title, but one of them was a Pac-10/Big Ten team bound to the Rose Bowl, then there would be no difficulty in deciding which teams to place in the Bowl Alliance “national championship” bowl; if the Pac-10/Big Ten team won the Rose Bowl and finished with the same record as whichever team won the other bowl game, they could have a share of the national title. open access publication - free to read

^ “Mansfield, Pennsylvania – It happened one night – First Football under lights – Mansfield PA 1892″. It was a recollection of the birth of Colorado football written by one of CU’s original gridders, John C. At-large teams could be chosen from any of the Division I conferences, though only one selection–Utah in 2005–came from a non-BCS affiliated conference. February 19, 1911. The Research Quarterly. Goddard were playing coaches for the first team which was put together by quarterback Arthur Carroll; who in turn volunteered to make the pants for the team and later became a tailor.[61] USC faced its first collegiate opponent the following year in fall 1889, playing St. Both Donahue and McGugin just came from the north that year, Donahue from Yale and McGugin from Michigan, and were among the initial inductees of the College Football Hall of Fame. Retrieved May 6, 2014.

^ “Amos Alonzo Stagg and Football at Chicago”.

^ Edwin Pope. Students and alumni began to clamor for a return to American football to allow wider intercollegiate competition.[87] The pressure at rival California was stronger (especially as the school had not been as successful in the Big Game as they had hoped), and in 1915 California returned to American football. Without the Pac-10/Big Ten team bound to a bowl game, it would be difficult to decide which two teams should play for the national title.

Teams in each of these four divisions are further divided into various regional conferences.

As a result of this, Harvard refused to attend the rules conference organized by Rutgers, Princeton and Columbia at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in New York City on October 20, 1873 to agree on a set of rules and regulations that would allow them to play a form of football that was essentially Association football; and continued to play under its own code. For the current season of Bowl Subdivision play, see 2016 NCAA Division I FBS football season. The high school won 24 to 0.[59]

Field hockey





Mountain West

1906 St. 2006. 2007. As a result of this meeting, the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States was formed in 1906. Oklahoma, under coach Bud Wilkinson, won three national titles (1950, 1955, 1956) and all ten Big Eight Conference championships in the decade while building a record 47-game winning streak. “Sewanee, long-lost member of the SEC”.

^ “On the 7th Day They Rested” (PDF).

^ “Grantland Rice”. That changed with the debut of the four-team College Football Playoff at the end of the 2014 season.

NCAA football official site

Composite television schedule of NCAA football games


College Football at

College Football at

Stassen College Football, comprehensive college football database

College Football Data Warehouse

Gridiron History


NCAA Football 2011 and 2012 Rules and Interpretations


Google Map of Division II Football Programs

Map of FBS Teams and Conferences

January 30, 1892 saw the first football game played in the Deep South when the Georgia Bulldogs defeated Mercer 50-0 at Herty Field.

Several major modern college football conferences rose to prominence during this time period. The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics also holds a playoff.

Map of Division I (A) FBS

Durung 12 seasons of playing rugby union, Stanford was remarkably successful: the team had three undefeated seasons, three one-loss seasons, and an overall record of 94 wins, 20 losses, and 3 ties for a winning percentage of .816. Though it was underutilized for years, this proved to be one of the most important rule changes in the establishment of the modern game.[100] Another rule change banned “mass momentum” plays (many of which, like the infamous “flying wedge”, were sometimes literally deadly).

Besides these coaching innovations, several rules changes during the first third of the 20th century had a profound impact on the game, mostly in opening up the passing game. PMID 4903389.

^ Watterson, John (2001). They remained largely “mob” style games, with huge numbers of players attempting to advance the ball into a goal area, often by any means necessary. It is still usually regarded as the first game of college football.[3][6][7][8] The game was played at a Rutgers field. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “Florida Power:The Early Years”. “Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association Foot Ball”. Overtime for regular season games in the NFL began with the 1974 season. It is claimed by Georgetown authorities as the game with the first ever “roving center” or linebacker when Percy Given stood up, in contrast to the usual tale of Germany Schulz.[56] The first linebacker in the South is often considered to be Frank Juhan.

Helping Georgia Tech’s claim to a title in 1917, the Auburn Tigers held undefeated, Chic Harley-led Big Ten champion Ohio State to a scoreless tie the week before Georgia Tech beat the Tigers 68 to 7. Retrieved May 6, 2014.

^ “Seventy-four to nothing”. The number grew to eleven in 1976. OSU Alumni Association. Retrieved September 11, 2012.

^ John Majors. Dartmouth won 91 to 0.[28]




Columbia University was the third school to field a team. Oregon Ducks Football: 100 Years of Glory. In the Rugby rules of the time, a try only provided the attempt to kick a free goal from the field. (1991). 201-209.

^ “Intercollegiate Football: The U.S.C. p. 179.

^ a b Mal Florence et al., The Trojan Heritage, 2004 USC Football Media Guide, USC Athletic Department, pp. It was also the first time one team scored over 100 points and the opposing team was shut out.[26] The next week, Princeton outscored Lafayette by 140 to 0.[27]



In 1864, at Trinity College, also a college of the University of Toronto, F. Archived from the original on April 30, 2007. Davis described the period between 1869 and 1875 as the ‘Pioneer Period'; the years 1876-93 he called the ‘Period of the American Intercollegiate Football Association'; and the years 1894-1933 he dubbed the ‘Period of Rules Committees and Conferences’.[5]




College teams mostly play other similarly sized schools through the NCAA’s divisional system. Tales from the Oregon Ducks Sideline. When Army scheduled Notre Dame as a warm-up game, they thought little of the small school. Stanford: Home of Champions. However, both Group of Five teams selected for New Year’s Six bowls (Boise State in 2014 and Houston in 2015) won their games.

Official rules and notable rule distinctions

See also: American football rules

Old “Football Fightum” had been resurrected at Harvard in 1872, when Harvard resumed playing football. “Buff Milestones” (PDF). Because the college officials could not agree upon a change in rules, it was decided over the course of several subsequent meetings that an external governing body should be responsible. The BCS system was slightly adjusted in 2006, as the NCAA added a fifth game to the series, called the National Championship Game. Division I generally consists of the major collegiate athletic powers with larger budgets, more elaborate facilities, and (with the exception of a few conferences such as the Pioneer Football League) more athletic scholarships. Woody Hayes led Ohio State to two national titles, in 1954 and 1957, and dominated the Big Ten conference, winning three Big Ten titles–more than any other school. pp. 285-311. He was so famous at that point that his funeral was broadcast nationally on radio.[121][126]

Tom Davies runs against undefeated and unscored upon Georgia Tech in the 1918 game at Forbes Field.





Swimming & Diving



Coaches of the era

Glenn “Pop” Warner

The Athletic Association should now invigorate its base-ball and place it at par with its football team; and it certainly has the material with which to do it. Retrieved 2012-10-22.

^ “Parke H. Weyand (1962). No minor league farm organizations exist in American football. National Collegiate Athletic Association. The two-point conversion was not implemented in the NFL until 1994, but it had been previously used in the old American Football League (AFL) before it merged with the NFL in 1970.

The defensive team may score two points on a point-after touchdown attempt by returning a blocked kick, fumble, or interception into the opposition’s end zone. Retrieved 2007-05-31.

^ a b MacCambridge (1999), pp 148

^ Vancil (2000), pp 30

^ Vancil (2000), pp 28-30

^ “A Brief History of the Heisman Trophy”. Sumner (1990). “Two-point conversion turns 50.” The NCAA News. ISBN 0-9648244-7-7.

^ a b Libby, Brian. When a game goes to overtime, each team is given one possession from its opponent’s twenty-five yard line with no game clock, despite the one timeout per period and use of play clock. Rutgers Through The Years. As a result, the official Division I National Champion is the winner of the Football Championship Subdivision, as it is the highest level of football with an NCAA-administered championship tournament.

In 1879, the University of Michigan became the first school west of Pennsylvania to establish a college football team. Retrieved 2008-04-06.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 19-22

^ Vancil (2000), pp 24-29

^ a b c MacCambridge (1999), pp 124

^ “A Look Back at the Southwest Conference”. These down-and-distance rules, combined with the establishment of the line of scrimmage, transformed the game from a variation of rugby football into the distinct sport of American football.[16]

After the first game against Harvard, Tufts took its squad to Bates College in Lewiston, Maine for the first football game played in Maine.[23] This occurred on November 6, 1875.

1895 football game between Auburn and Georgia.

In 1909, the Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference was founded, featuring four members: Colorado, Colorado College, Colorado School of Mines, and Colorado Agricultural College. Retrieved May 6, 2014.

^ “Stanford Game-by-Game Results; 1892-1895″. Journal of Sport History. Notre Dame remains a football independent, but is counted among the Power Five because of its full but non-football ACC membership, including a football scheduling alliance with that conference. Originally, the snap was executed with the foot of the center. NCAA. Finally, on December 28, 1905, 62 schools met in New York City to discuss rule changes to make the game safer. Between 1890 and 1905, 330 college athletes died as a direct result of injuries sustained on the football field. p. 95.

^ Ray Dozier. Every play is subject to booth review with coaches only having one challenge. Modern Canadian football is widely regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians. “A Look Back at High School Football in 1900s Decade”.

^ Triumph Books. Football Immortals. In the thirty years from 1950 to 1980, seven bowl games were added to the schedule. Reeves had a crude leather helmet made by a shoemaker in Annapolis and wore it in the game after being warned by his doctor that he risked death if he continued to play football after suffering an earlier kick to the head.[30]

National Collegiate Athletic Association

Partly as a compromise between both bowl game and playoff supporters, the NCAA created the Bowl Championship Series (BCS) in 1998 in order to create a definitive National Championship game for college football. Retrieved October 20, 2011.

^ John C. While Harvard’s voluntary absence from the meeting made it hard for them to schedule games against other American universities, it agreed to a challenge to play the rugby team of McGill University, from Montreal, in a two-game series. The notorious V was then in vogue, which gave a heavy team too much advantage. Reading Eagle. The Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a mock figure called “Football Fightum”, for whom they conducted funeral rites. The Strode Publishers. reprint of Silver & Gold article. April 16, 2007. Vincent’s College to a 40-0 victory.[61] In 1893, USC joined the Intercollegiate Football Association of Southern California (the forerunner of the SCIAC), which was composed of USC, Occidental College, Throop Polytechnic Institute (Cal Tech), and Chaffey College. The new NCAA rule applies to penalties on both sides of the ball.

Players lined up outside the tackle box–more specifically, those lined up more than 7 yards from the center–will now be allowed to block below the waist only if they are blocking straight ahead or toward the nearest sideline.

On placekicks, no offensive lineman can now be engaged by more than two defensive players. One conference champion from this group receives a spot in a New Year’s Six game. Archived from the original on October 31, 2009. The following season saw Vanderbilt execute a double pass play to set up the touchdown that beat Sewanee in a meeting of unbeatens for the SIAA championship. (1995). p. 186. The Southwest Athletic Conference had been founded in 1915. Another rule, unique to McGill, was to count tries (the act of grounding the football past the opposing team’s goal line; it is important to note that there was no end zone during this time), as well as goals, in the scoring. Players who became famous for taking advantage of the easier passing game included Alabama end Don Hutson and TCU passer “Slingin” Sammy Baugh.[133]

^ Evans, Harold (August 1940). Its primary restriction is that all players must weigh less than the average college student (that threshold is set, as of 2015, at 172 pounds/78 kg).



Several organizations operate college football programs outside the jurisdiction of the NCAA:

Even after the emergence of the professional National Football League (NFL), college football remained extremely popular throughout the Artic North of Spain[1] Although the college game has a much larger margin for talent than its pro counterpart, the sheer number of fans following major colleges provides a financial equalizer for the game, with Division I programs – the highest level – playing in huge stadiums, six of which have seating capacity exceeding 100,000. 1991 Pitt Football: University of Pittsburgh Football Media Guide. Starting in 2013, non-seeded teams can only host a playoff game if both teams involved are unseeded; in such a matchup, the schools must bid for the right to host the game. reconnects with past, but bowl scene not the same”. Schaff himself was injured and unable to the play the game, but Yale won the game 3-0 nonetheless. These deaths could be attributed to the mass formations and gang tackling that characterized the sport in its early years.

Ice hockey


It was voted that the officers constitute a committee to provide uniform suits in which to play what was called “association football”. Augusta Computer Services. Jarvis Field was at the time a patch of land at the northern point of the Harvard campus, bordered by Everett and Jarvis Streets to the north and south, and Oxford Street and Massachusetts Avenue to the east and west. NFL Enterprises LLC. On May 30, 1879 Michigan beat Racine College 1-0 in a game played in Chicago. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Washington and Lee also claims a 4 to 2 win over VMI in 1873.[38]



NCAA Division II Football Championship – playoff for determining the national champion at the third highest level of college football from 1973 to present.

NCAA Division III Football Championship – playoff for determining the national champion at the fourth highest level of college football from 1973 to present.

NAIA National Football Championship -playoff for determining the national champions of college football governed by the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics.

NJCAA National Football Championship – playoff for determining the national champions of college football governed by the National Junior College Athletic Association.

CSFL Championship – Champions of the Collegiate Sprint Football League, a weight restricted football sport.

Team maps


Swimming & Diving



Division I FBS National Championship Games

Main articles: Bowl Championship Series and College Football Playoff




Modernization and innovation (1906-1930)

The 10 FBS conferences are formally and popularly divided into two groups:




Mid West

With the growth of bowl games, it became difficult to determine a national champion in a fair and equitable manner. It appears here in its original form:

The University of Oregon began playing American football in 1894 and played its first game on March 24, 1894, defeating Albany College 44-3 under head coach Cal Young.[77][78][79] Cal Young left after that first game and J.A. “Sports and Freedom: The Rise of Big-Time College Athletics”, New York: Oxford University Press, 1988

^ Infamous 1874 McGill-Harvard game turns 132 at McGill Athletics, published by McGill University (no further authorship information available). “The Evolution of School Spirit and Tradition at Oregon State University” (PDF). In Baldwin City, Kansas, on November 22, 1890, college football was first played in the state of Kansas. (1916-10-15). ABC Sports began broadcasting a national Game of the Week in 1966, bringing key matchups and rivalries to a national audience for the first time.[141]

Walter Camp: Father of American football

Modern college football (since 1958)

Bowl Championship Series

Main article: Bowl Championship Series

See also: NCAA Division I Football Championship

After leaving Yale in 1882, Camp was employed by the New Haven Clock Company until his death in 1925. Retrieved 2007-03-21. Emory Bellard, an assistant coach under Darrell Royal at the University of Texas, developed a three-back option style offense known as the wishbone. 1895. Stanford: Home of Champions. Retrieved February 9, 2015.

^ Melvin I. Big Ten Conference – Official Athletic Site – Traditions. August 22, 1900. The University of Denver and the University of Utah joined the RMAC in 1910. To Whittemore’s surprise, Camp agreed to coach the team himself, on the condition that he finish the season at Yale first.[63] As a result of Camp’s late arrival, Stanford played just three official games, against San Francisco’s Olympic Club and rival California. Retrieved 30 May 2012.

^ Edmonston Jr., George. p. 15.

^ “Stanford Defeats Stagg’s Eleven”. p. 3. 2007. For the video game series, see NCAA Football series. The game suffered from disorganization and the players kicked and battled each other as much as the ball. Camp’s most famous change, the establishment of the line of scrimmage and the snap from center to quarterback, was also passed in 1880. Also, a complex system of human polls, computer rankings, and strength of schedule calculations was instituted to rank schools. This arrangement is contractually locked in until the 2026 season.

College football outside the United States

See also: List of college football games played outside the United States



The establishment of the CFP followed a tumultuous period of conference realignment in Division I. p. 64.

^ “Spotlight Athletics:”. lumbia joined the series in 1870, and by 1872 several schools were fielding intercollegiate teams, including Yale and Stevens Institute of Technology.[3]







Walter Camp is widely considered to be the most important figure in the development of American football.[6][7][16] As a youth, he excelled in sports like track, baseball, and association football, and after enrolling at Yale in 1876, he earned varsity honors in every sport the school offered.[16]

1902 football game between the University of Minnesota and the University of Michigan

At the Division I FCS level, the teams participate in a 24-team playoff (most recently expanded from 20 teams in 2013) to determine the national championship. The next season, with many players gone due to World War I, a game was finally scheduled at Forbes Field with Pittsburgh. Associated Press. March 29, 1916 – via Google books. 11 (3): 33.

^ Goldsmith, A. Though some coaches, such as General Robert Neyland at Tennessee, continued to eschew its use, several rules changes to the game had a profound effect on teams’ ability to throw the ball. The Division I National Championship game is held in Frisco, Texas.

Field hockey


A college that fields a team in the NCAA is not restricted from fielding teams in club or sprint football, and several colleges field two teams, a varsity (NCAA) squad and a club or sprint squad (no schools, as of 2015, field both club and sprint teams at the same time).

Growth of bowl games

See also: Bowl game

Growth of bowl




In 1906, citing concerns about the violence in American Football, universities on the West Coast, led by California and Stanford, replaced the sport with rugby union.[87] At the time, the future of American football was very much in doubt and these schools believed that rugby union would eventually be adopted nationwide.[87] Other schools fllowed suit and also made the switch included Nevada, St. Starting with the 2006 season, a fifth game–simply called the BCS National Championship Game–was added to the schedule, to be played at the site of one of the four BCS bowl games on a rotating basis, one week after the regular bowl game. sporting event.[76]



The longtime resistance to a playoff system at the FBS level finally ended with the creation of the College Football Playoff (CFP) beginning with the 2014 season. The Yale team was coached and captained by David Schley Schaff, who had learned to play football while attending Rugby school. The last team from the non-AQ ranks to reach a BCS bowl game in the BCS era was Northern Illinois in 2012, which played in (and lost) the 2013 Orange Bowl.

Beach volleyball


– John C. Pennsylvania”. A player could carry the ball only when being pursued.





The following was taken from the Silver & Gold newspaper of December 16, 1898. August 2008. At this meeting, a list of rules, based more on the Football Association’s rules than the rules of the recently founded Rugby Football Union, was drawn up for intercollegiate football games.[3]


Colorado’s First football team in 1890.

On November 13, 1887 the Virginia Cavaliers and Pantops Academy fought to a scoreless tie in the first organized football game in the state of Virginia.[42] Students at UVA were playing pickup games of the kicking-style of football as early as 1870, and some accounts even claim that some industrious ones organized a game against Washington and Lee College in 1871, just two years after Rutgers and Princeton’s historic first game in 1869. In lieu of an actual national championship, these bowl games, along with the earlier Rose Bowl, provided a way to match up teams from distant regions of the country that did not otherwise play. The game featured no uniforms, no positions, and the rules were formulated before the game.[44]

As professional football became a national television phenomenon, college football did as well. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

Johnson, Greg (2008-08-28). In the NFL a player is active until he is tackled or forced down by a member of the opposing team (down by contact).

The clock stops after the offense completes a first down and begins again–assuming it is following a play in which the clock would not normally stop–once the referee says the ball is ready for play. Tennessee Historical Society. The first team to reach six goals was declared the winner. The team leading after both possessions is declared the winner. “Old Division Football, The Indigenous Mob Soccer Of Dartmouth College (pdf)” (PDF). Princeton, in particular, used scrimmage play to slow the game, making incremental progress towards the end zone during each down. p. 232.

^ David M. Also in 1887, two paid officials–a referee and an umpire–were mandated for each game. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

Professional Football Researchers Association. Rockne is also credited with popularizing and perfecting the forward pass, a seldom used play at the time.[125] The 1924 team featured the Four Horsemen backfield. p. 12.

^ a b Ray Soldan (September 11, 1994). Joseph M. A year later, the rules were changed to allow tackling below the waist, and in 1889, the officials were given whistles and stopwatches.[16]

November 1890 was an active time in the sport. The game features prominently in Vanderbilt’s history.[118] That same year, Alabama upset Penn 9 to 7.[119]

At the beginning of the first semester in the fall of ’90 the boys rooming at the dormitory on the campus of the U. New York Times. 111, Issue 8

Brian M. Amos Alonzo Stagg introduced such innovations as the huddle, the tackling dummy, and the pre-snap shift.[102] Other coaches, such as Pop Warner and Knute Rockne, introduced new strategies that still remain part of the game.

The 1930s saw growth in the passing game. Ivy League Rugby Conference (2009-01-31). University of Virginia Football Vault. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

“NFL History by Decade: 1869-1910.” National Football League. Kansas Historical Quarterly. Accessed 29 January 2007.

^ a b Parke H. All of these games, and others, shared certain commonalities. open access publication - free to read

^ a b “Brown Calls Vanderbilt ’06 Best Eleven South Ever Had”. The Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association (SIAA) was founded on December 21, 1894, by Dr. By next season, Oklahoma coach John A. Stetson beat Florida Agricultural College at Lake City, one of the four forerunners of the University of Florida, 6-0, in a game played as part of the Jacksonville Fair.[55]

On April 9, 1880 at Stoll Field, Transylvania University (then called Kentucky University) beat Centre College by the score of 13¾-0 in what is often considered the first recorded game played in the South.[40] The first game of “scientific football” in the South was the first instance of the Victory Bell rivalry between North Carolina and Duke (then known as Trinity College) held on Thanksgiving Day, 1888, at the North Carolina State Fairgrounds in Raleigh, North Carolina.[41]

Bowl games

Main articles: Bowl game and List of college bowl games

Brown enters the intercollegiate game in 1878.[25]

One publication claims “The first scouting done in the South was in 1905, when Dan McGugin and Captain Innis Brown, of Vanderbilt went to Atlanta to see Sewanee play Georgia Tech.”[111]Fuzzy Woodruff claims Davidson was the first in the south to throw a legal forward pass in 1906. Dartmouth played its own version called “Old division football”, the rules of which were first published in 1871, though the game dates to at least the 1830s. It also had the first two players from the Deep South selected first-team All-American in Walker Carpenter and Everett Strupper. Kirwan, chancellor of the University of Maryland System and co-director of the Knight Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics, “We’ve reached a point where big-time intercollegiate athletics is undermining the integrity of our institutions, diverting presidents and institutions from their main purpose.”[156] Football coaches often make more than the presidents of their universities which employ them.[157] Athletes are alleged to receive preferential treatment both in academics and when they run afoul of the law.[158] Although in theory football is an extra-curricular activity engaged in as a sideline by students, it generates a substantial profit, from which the athletes receive no direct benefit. In 1936, the Associated Press began its weekly poll of prominent sports writers, ranking all of the nation’s college football teams. Retrieved 2006-11-29.

^ “1872 Rutgers Scarlet Knights Schedule and Results”. Nixon, Silver & Gold, December 16, 1898[90]

College Football Playoff

College athletics in the United States

College Football Hall of Fame

College football on radio

College football on television

Helmet stickers

Division II and Division III of the NCAA also participate in their own respective playoffs, crowning national champions at the end of the season. Church took over the coaching position in the fall for the rest of the season. Stevens lost to Columbia, but beat both New York University and City College of New York during the following year.

On December 14, 1889, Wofford defeated Furman 5 to 1 in the first intercollegiate game in the state of South Carolina. Retrieved March 7, 2015.

^ “The Football Game That Changed the South”. On June 4, 1875, Harvard faced Tufts University in the first game between two American colleges played under rules similar to the McGill/Harvard contest, which was won by Tufts.[14] The rules included each side fielding 11 men at any given time, the ball was advanced by kicking or carrying it, and tackles of the ball carrier stopped play.[15]

The situation came to a head in 1905 when there were 19 fatalities nationwide. Based on this ranking system, the No.1 and No.2 teams met each year in the national championship game. In the rankings of the most victorious programs, Michigan, Texas, and Notre Dame are ranked first, second, and third in total wins.

Cross Country



The first documented gridiron football match was a game played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9, 1861. He led his team to an impressive 105-12-5 record before his premature death in a plane crash in 1931. Yost, Michigan became the first “western” national power. MSNBC. p. 3.

^ “Grantland Rice Tells Of Greatest Thrill In Years Of Watching Sport”. Saperecom. Passing numbers dropped from an average of 18.9 attempts in 1951 to 13.6 attempts in 1955, while teams averaged just shy of 50 running plays per game. Several times in 1883, Camp tinkered with the scoring rules, finally arriving at four points for a touchdown, two points for kicks after touchdowns, two points for safeties, and five for field goals. In 1910 Vanderbilt held defending national champion Yale to a scoreless tie.[116]

Canadian football, which parallels American football, is played by collegiate teams in Canada under the auspices of Canadian Interuniversity Sport. Atlanta Constitution. As most of these players had eligibility left on their college careers, some of them returned to college at West Point, bringing Army back-to-back national titles in 1944 and 1945 under coach Red Blaik. Oregon finished the season with two additional losses and a tie, but went undefeated the following season, winning all four of its games under head coach Percy Benson.[79][80][81] In 1899, the Oregon football team left the state for the first time, playing the California Golden Bears in Berkeley, California.[77]

Vanderbilt’s line coach then was Wallace Wade, who in 1925 coached Alabama to the south’s first Rose Bowl victory. (1969). College Football Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2008-01-16.

^ A compilation of seven sources:

“History.” 2009 Baylor Football Media Almanac. The semifinals are hosted by two of a group of six traditional bowl games often called the “New Year’s Six”, with semifinal hosting rotating annually among three pairs of games in the following order: Rose/Sugar, Orange/Cotton, and Fiesta/Peach. Retrieved March 24, 2015.

^ “Concise Encyclopedia of Tufts History”.

^ “Penn Football:Origins To 1901″.

^ Mark F. FOX Sports on MSN. December 18, 1930. pp. A3.

^ Alex Lynn (November 25, 1906). Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College. “The Birth of OSU Football”. It was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used a set of rules suggested by Rutgers captain William J. In the NFL, the same foul would result in a penalty on the conversion attempt or ensuing kickoff, at the option of the non-penalized team.

If a team is penalized in the final minute of a half and the penalty causes the clock to stop, the opposing team now has the right to have 10 seconds run off the clock in addition to the yardage penalty. Colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition, housing, and books.[2]

Heisman shift

Although rules for the high school, college, and NFL games are generally consistent, there are several minor differences. The CFP is a Plus-One system, a concept that became popular as a BCS alternative following controversies in 2003 and 2004. In 1966, rugby league introduced a four-tackle rule (changed in 1972 to a six-tackle rule) based on Camp’s early down-and-distance rules.

Camp was central to several more significant rule changes that came to define American football. Some coaches and officials questioned this rule change as it could lead to more injuries to the players as there will likely be more kickoff returns.[148] The rationale for the rule change was to help reduce dead time in the game.[149] The NFL returned its kickoff location to the 35-yard line effective in 2011; college football did not do so until 2012.

Several changes were made to college rules in 2011, all of which differ from NFL practice:[150]If a player is penalized for unsportsmanlike conduct for actions that occurred during a play ending in a touchdown by that team, but before the goal line was crossed, the touchdown will be nullified. “College Football”. The two semifinal winners then advance to the College Football Playoff National Championship, whose host is determined by open bidding several years in advance.

Utilizing the “jump shift” offense, John Heisman’s Georgia Tech Golden Tornado won 222 to 0 over Cumberland on October 7, 1916, at Grant Field in the most lopsided victory in college football history.[114] Tech went on a 33-game winning streak during this period. When Heisman left Tech after 1919, his shift was still employed by protege William Alexander.

In 1907 at Champaign, Illinois Chicago and Illinois played in the first game to have a halftime show featuring a marching band.[106] Chicago won 42-6. There was no limit to the number of players, but there were typically ten to fifteen per side. Prescott Evening Courier.

^ “Ball Under The Jersey”. Retrieved April 4, 2011.

^ DeLassus, David. open access publication - free to read

^ DeLassus, David. The Harvard students took to the rugby rules and adopted them as their own,[3][10][11] The games featured a round ball instead of a rugby-style oblong ball.[11] This series of games represents an important milestone in the development of the modern game of American football.[12][13] In October 1874, the Harvard team once again traveled to Montreal to play McGill in rugby, where they won by three tries.

Rise of the South

Cross Country



Sewanee’s 1899 “Iron Men.”

Meanwhile, John H. College Football Data Warehouse. In 1887, game time was set at two halves of 45 minutes each. This happened in the final year of the Bowl Alliance, with Michigan winning the 1998 Rose Bowl and Nebraska winning the 1998 Orange Bowl. Six major bowl games (the Rose, Sugar, Cotton, Orange, Peach, and Fiesta) rotate on a three-year cycle as semifinal games, with the winners advancing to the College Football Playoff National Championship. This allows them to seat more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium, which tends to have more features and comforts for fans. Suits of flannel were ultimately procured and paid for assessments on the members of the association and generous contributions from members of the faculty.


Notable intersectional games

In 1935, New York City’s Downtown Athletic Club awarded the first Heisman Trophy to University of Chicago halfback Jay Berwanger, who was also the first ever NFL Draft pick in 1936. “1958 Colts remember the ‘Greatest Game'”. In 1952, the NCAA claimed all television broadcasting rights for the games of its member institutions, and it alone negotiated television rights. Washington and Lee won 4-2.[38] Some industrious students of the two schools organized a game for October 23, 1869 – but it was rained out.[39] Students of the University of Virginia were playing pickup games of the kicking-style of football as early as 1870, and some accounts even claim it organized a game against Washington and Lee College in 1871; but no record has been found of the score of this contest. The first western team to travel east was the 1881 Michigan team, which played at Harvard, Yale and Princeton.[32][33] The nation’s first college football league, the Intercollegiate Conference of Faculty Representatives (also known as the Western Conference), a precursor to the Big Ten Conference, was founded in 1895.[34]


Scoring table

Historical college football scoring[18]



Field goal

Conversion (kick)

Conversion (touchdown)


Conversion safety

Defensive conversion

































































Note: For brief periods in the late 19th century, some penalties awarded one or more points for the opposing teams, and some teams in the late 19th and early 20th centuries chose to negotiate their own scoring system for individual games.


During World War II, college football players enlisted in the armed forces, some playing in Europe during the war. open access publication - free to read

^ “Football Squads Begin practice”. Clemson, Cumberland, Kentucky, LSU, Mercer, Mississippi, Mississippi A&M (Mississippi State), Southwestern Presbyterian University, Tennessee, Texas, Tulane, and the University of Nashville joined the following year in 1895 as invited charter members.[46] The conference was originally formed for “the development and purification of college athletics throughout the South”.[47]

College football is a controversial institution within American higher education, where the amount of money involved–what people will pay for the entertainment provided–is a corrupting factor within universities that they are usually ill-equipped to deal with.[154][155] According to William E. In 2009, Boise State played TCU in the Fiesta Bowl, the first time two schools from non-BCS conferences played each other in a BCS bowl game. Princeton won that game by a score of 8 – 0. John Roberts.

^ Robin Lester (Summer 1991). Lawrence Journal-World. This college rule was added in 1988. “Too many bowl games? Nonsense”. Sportswriter Grantland Rice helped popularize the sport with his poetic descriptions of games and colorful nicknames for the game’s biggest players, including Notre Dame’s “Four Horsemen” backfield and Fordham University’s linemen, known as the “Seven Blocks of Granite”.[105]

The system continued to change, as the formula for ranking teams was tweaked from year to year. p. 8. Football: The Ivy League Origins of an American Obsession. Among his other innovations are modern blocking schemes, the three-point stance, and the reverse play.[121] The youth football league, Pop Warner Little Scholars, was named in his honor.


Hall of Champions


Charles William Eliot, President of Harvard University (1869-1909) opposing football in 1905.[91]

Walter Camp, the “Father of American Football”, pictured here in 1878 as the captain of the Yale Football team

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about gridiron football played at a collegiate level in the United States. Retrieved 2016-01-24.

Rutgers was first to extend the reach of the game. Retrieved 2007-08-17.

^ “NCAA Football Rules Committee Votes To Restore Plays While Attempting To Maintain Shorter Overall Game Time”. Other important changes, formally adopted in 1910, were the requirements that at least seven offensive players be on the line of scrimmage at the time of the snap, that there be no pushing or pulling, and that interlocking interference (arms linked or hands on belts and uniforms) was not allowed. What is absolutely certain is that on October 9, 1905, Roosevelt held a meeting of football representatives from Harvard, Yale, and Princeton. Throwing or carrying the ball was not allowed, but there was plenty of physical contact between players. Ralph Turtinen, ed. He is credited with being the first major coach to emphasize offense over defense. open access publication - free to read

^ Gardner (1996)

^ Dupont, Kevin Paul (September 23, 2004). Retrieved 2012-12-18.

^ a b c d e f g “No Christian End!” (PDF). p. 21. p. 52. Also, rules were changed to add the champions of five additional conferences (Conference USA [C-USA], the Mid-American Conference [MAC], the Mountain West Conference [MW], the Sun Belt Conference and the Western Athletic Conference [WAC]), provided that said champion ranked in the top twelve in the final BCS rankings, or was within the top 16 of the BCS rankings and ranked higher than the champion of at least one of the “BCS conferences” (also known as “AQ” conferences, for Automatic Qualifying).[147] Several times since this rule change was implemented, schools from non-AQ conferences have played in BCS bowl games. Three of the schools–Harvard, Columbia, and Princeton–formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, as a result of the meeting. They are then invited to a bowl game based on their conference ranking and the tie-ins that the conference has to each bowl game. The annual Big Game between Stanford and California continued as rugby, with the winner invited by the British Columbia Rugby Union to a tournament in Vancouver over the Christmas holidays, with the winner of that tournament receiving the Cooper Keith Trophy.[87][88][89]

1.5 Violence, formation of NCAA

1.6 Modernization and innovation (1906-1930)

1.6.1 Rise of the South Heisman shift Notable intersectional games

A night game between Harvard and Brown, September 25, 2009

New formations and play sets continued to be developed. Retrieved April 12, 2011.

^ “Timeline of Yale Football”. The Official National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Guide. Colorado found much success in its early years, winning eight Colorado Football Association Championships (1894-97, 1901-08).

Inasmuch as Rugby football had been transplanted to Canada from England, the McGill team played under a set of rules which allowed a player to pick up the ball and run with it whenever he wished. ISBN 978-0-7948-2647-5.

^ “Wake Forest: A Look Back”.

^ “Furman University – 2014 FB Record Book”. Teams had been scaled down from 25 players to 20. Barlow Cumberland and Frederick A. The effect was to open up the game and emphasize speed over strength. Retrieved 2007-08-17.

^ “Series of rules changes approved”. American athletes of the century”. being afflicted with a super-abundance of penned up energy, or perhaps having recently drifted from under the parental wing and delighting in their newly found freedom, decided among other wild schemes, to form an athletic association. October 3, 2010.

^ a b c d e f g h i j Park, Roberta J (Winter 1984). These changes greatly reduced the potential for collision injuries.[101] Several coaches emerged who took advantage of these sweeping changes. Retrieved 2007-06-01.

^ a b c “BCS Chronology”. The annual National Champion in the Football Bowl Subdivision is then instead traditionally determined by a vote of sports writers and other non-players.


Main article: Head coach § College football

National championships

College football national championships in NCAA Division I FBS – Overview of systems for determining national champions at the highest level of college football from 1869 to present.

College Football Playoff – 4 team playoff system for determining national champions at the highest level of college football beginning in 2014.

Bowl Championship Series – The primary method of determining the national champion at the highest level of college football from 1998-2013; preceded by the Bowl Alliance (1995-1997) and the Bowl Coalition (1992-1994).

1 History

1.1 Rugby Football in England and Canada

1.2 American college football

1.2.1 Early games

1.2.2 Harvard-McGill (1874)

1.2.3 Harvard-Tufts, Harvard-Yale (1875)

1.2.4 Walter Camp: Father of American football

Harvard-Tufts, Harvard-Yale (1875)

1904 Vanderbilt team in action.






On November 23, 1876, representatives from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Columbia met at the Massasoit House in Springfield, Massachusetts to standardize a new code of rules based on the rugby game first introduced to Harvard by McGill University in 1874. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Sports Information Office. Dubbed “The First Greatest Game of the Century,”[37] broke Michigan’s 56-game unbeaten streak and marked the end of the “Point-a-Minute” years.

The Big Game between Stanford and California is the oldest college football rivalry in the West. The annual Army-Navy game was suspended from 1894 to 1898 for similar reasons.[92] One of the major problems was the popularity of mass-formations like the flying wedge, in which a large number of offensive players charged as a unit against a similarly arranged defense. The NCAA Football Rules Committee determines the playing rules for Division I (both Bowl and Championship Subdivisions), II, and III games (the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) is a separate organization, but uses the NCAA rules).

Pacific Coast

On October 18, 1888, the Wake Forest Demon Deacons defeated the North Carolina Tar Heels 6 to 4 in the first intercollegiate game in the state of North Carolina.[43]

The University of Southern California first fielded an American football team in 1888. It is recalled memorably with the phrase “… and on the seventh day they rested.”[51][52]Grantland Rice called them “the most durable football team I ever saw.”[53]

It is thought that the first forward pass in football occurred on October 26, 1895 in a game between Georgia and North Carolina when, out of desperation, the ball was thrown by the North Carolina back Joel Whitaker instead of punted and George Stephens caught the ball.[48] On November 9, 1895 John Heisman executed a hidden ball trick utilizing quarterback Reynolds Tichenor to get Auburn’s only touchdown in a 6 to 9 loss to Vanderbilt. Lawrence Daily Journal. On the coaching staff of those 1944-1946 Army teams was future Pro Football Hall of Fame coach Vince Lombardi.[131][135]

Rugby Football in England and Canada




As a result of the 1905-1906 reforms, mass formation plays became illegal and forward passes legal. Sports Athens, Georgia: E. President Theodore Roosevelt reportedly threatened to shut down the game if drastic changes were not made.[94] However, the threat by Roosevelt to eliminate football is disputed by sports historians. Ingrassia, The Rise of Gridiron University: Higher Education’s Uneasy Alliance with Big-Time Football. “John Franklin Crowell, Methodism, and the Football Controversy at Trinity College, 1887-1894″ (PDF). 2012-05-14. The mass plays being now barred, skill on the football field is more in demand than mere weight and strength.

Track and Field

Men’s indoor and outdoor

Women’s indoor and outdoor




College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries. National Collegiate Athletic Association. The New York Times. The first intercollegiate game between official varsity teams was played on November 22, 1901. Retrieved 2011-10-06.

^ Steven Salzberg, “Football is corrupting America’s universities: it needs to go”, Forbes, November 26, 2011,

^ Jay Schalin, “Time for universities to punt football”, Washington Times, September 1, 2011,

^ Laura Pappano, “How Big-Time Sports Ate College Life”, New York Times, January 20, 2012.

^ Jonah Newman, “Coaches, Not Presidents, Top Public-College Pay List”, Chronicle of Higher Education, May 16, 2014,

^ One reference among many: Walt Bogdanich, “A Star Player Accused, and a Flawed Rape Investigation”, New York Times, April 16, 2014,

^ Gregg Doyel, “Time to pay college football players — changing times, money say so”, CBS Sports, September 25, 2013,—-changing-times-money-say-so

^ Rod Gilmore, “College football players deserve pay for play”, ESPN College Football, January 17, 2007,

^ Taylor Branch, “The Shame of College Sports”, The Atlantic, October, 2011,

^ Ben Strauss and Marc Tracy, “N.C.A.A. It was also the first scoreless tie in the history of the fledgling sport.[21]Yale football starts the same year and has its first match against Columbia, the nearest college to play football. From 1980 to 2008, an additional 20 bowl games were added to the schedule.[144][145] Some have criticized this growth, claiming that the increased number of games has diluted the significance of playing in a bowl game. 2015 NCAA Football Records: Football Bowl Subdivision Records. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 2012.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to College football.

University of Wisconsin football team, 1903

The BCS selection committee used a complicated, and often controversial, computer system to rank all Division 1-FBS teams and the top two teams at the end of the season played for the National Championship. December 27, 1892. During this streak, Michigan scored 2,831 points while allowing only 40.[35]

The rules committee considered widening the playing field to “open up” the game, but Harvard Stadium (the first large permanent football stadium) had recently been built at great expense; it would be rendered useless by a wider field. Later in 1872, Stevens Tech became the fifth school to field a team. Possessions alternate with each overtime, until one team leads the other at the end of the overtime. The team also played exhibition games against two Los Angeles area teams that Stanford does not include in official results.[64][65] Camp returned to the East Coast following the season, then returned to coach Stanford in 1894 and 1895.

The 1950s saw the rise of yet more dynasties and power programs. Must Allow Colleges to Pay Athletes, Judge Rules”, New York Times, August 8, 2014,





The 1905 season marked the first meeting between Stanford and USC. Selection for the playoffs is determined by a selection committee, although usually a team must have a 7-4 record to even be considered. Thus, only Division I wins (whether FBS, FCS, or FCS non-scholarship) are considered for playoff selection. USC Trojans. Tech center Bum Day was the first player on a Southern team ever selected first-team All-American by Walter Camp.






Events listed in italics have been discontinued.

By 1873, the college students playing football had made significant efforts to standardize their fledgling game. “Michigan-Chicago 1905: The First Greatest Game of the Century” (PDF). 16 Stanford”. Retrieved 2012-12-18.

^ “The History of the NCAA”. Retrieved 2007-05-15.

^ “1800s”. An intercollegiate game was first played in the state of New York when Rutgers played Columbia on November 2, 1872. Each champion of these conferences is assured of a spot in a New Year’s Six bowl, though not necessarily in a semifinal game. If the teams remain tied, overtime periods continue, with a coin flip determining the first possession. The try would later evolve into the score known as the touchdown. Navy won 24-0.

After the Bowl Championship Series, additional all-star bowl games round out the post-season schedule through the beginning of February.

In 1891, the first Stanford football team was hastily organized and played a four-game season beginning in January 1892 with no official head coach. The Panthers, led by freshman Tom Davies, defeated Georgia Tech 32 to 0. Retrieved April 4, 2011.

^ “College Football Games”. For the first time, it included all major conferences (ACC, Big East, Big 12, Big Ten, Pac-10, and SEC) and four major bowl games (Rose, Orange, Sugar and Fiesta). In 1992, seven conferences and independent Notre Dame formed the Bowl Coalition, which attempted to arrange an annual No.1 versus No.2 matchup based on the final AP poll standings. November 27, 2011. The game ended in an 11-11 tie causing many teams to claim the title. College football quickly became the most popular spectator sport in the South.[127]

Retrieved from “″

See also

College football increased in popularity through the remainder of the 19th and early 20th century. The champions of these six conferences, along with two “at-large” selections, were invited to play in the four bowl games. April 15, 2011. The two competing sanctioning bodies have some overlap, and several clubs are members of both organizations.

The Collegiate Sprint Football League governs nine teams, all in the northeast. Outland held an experimental game in Wichita, Kansas that reduced the number of scrimmage plays to earn a first down from four to three in an attempt to reduce injuries.[96] The Los Angeles Times reported an increase in punts and considered the game much safer than regular play but that the new rule was not “conducive to the sport”.[97] In 1906, President Roosevelt organized a meeting among thirteen school leaders at the White House to find solutions to make the sport safer for the athletes. Los Angeles Herald. Mary’s, Santa Clara, and USC (in 1911).[87] However, due to the perception that West Coast football was inferior to the game played on the East Coast anyway, East Coast and Midwest teams shrugged off the loss of the teams and continued playing American football.[87] With no nationwide movement, the available pool of rugby teams to play remained small.[87] The schools scheduled games against local club teams and reached out to rugby union powers in Australia, New Zealand, and especially, due to its proximity, Canada. p. 116.

^ “Princeton-Chicago football game is broadcast across the country”.

^ George Allen. Several major rivalries date from this time period.




Ice hockey



1.6.2 Coaches of the era Glenn “Pop” Warner Knute Rockne

Knute Rockne






College Football Playoff

Main article: College Football Playoff

Harvard quickly took a liking to the rugby game, and its use of the try which, until that time, was not used in American football. Doc Blanchard (known as “Mr. It has its own arrangement for access to the New Year’s Six games should it meet certain standards.

Group of Five – The remaining five FBS conferences – American, C-USA, MAC, MW, and Sun Belt. Retrieved 2007-05-15.

^ a b c “NFL History3039-1910″. Retrieved 2007-06-04.

^ “President Eliot on Football.” The School Journal, Volume 70, United Education Company, New York, Chicago, and Boston, February 18, 1905, p.188.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 16-18

^ Bennett (1976), pp 20

^ Lewis, Guy M. That game was so lopsided that the game was not played annually until 1916, when the Tournament of Roses decided to reattempt the postseason game. There has been serious discussion about making student-athletes university employees to allow them to be paid.[159][160][161][162]

Swimming & Diving








The 1905 Utah football team

Unlike other college football divisions and most other sports–collegiate or professional–the Football Bowl Subdivision, formerly known as Division I-A college football, has historically not employed a playoff system to determine a champion. In 1995, the Coalition was replaced by the Bowl Alliance, which reduced the number of bowl games to host a national championship game to three–the Fiesta, Sugar, and Orange Bowls–and the participating conferences to five–the ACC, SEC, Southwest, Big Eight, and Big East. November 27, 1941.

^ “Homecoming 2015″. Retrieved January 14, 2013.

^ Alan Gould (January 24, 1931). Retrieved 2010-01-26.

^ Meacham, Scott (2006). Professional Football Researchers Association. For the current season of Championship Subdivision play, see 2016 NCAA Division I FCS football season.

The University of Colorado began playing American football in 1890. At the birth of cable television and cable sports networks like ESPN, there were fifteen bowls in 1980. Rules were simple, violence and injury were common.[3][4] The violence of these mob-style games led to widespread protests and a decision to abandon them. Instead, it has a series of postseason “bowl games”. Organized competition in American football also exists at the collegiate level in Mexico (ONEFA), the UK (British Universities American Football League), Japan (Japan American Football Association, Koshien Bowl), and South Korea (Korea American Football Association).

Started in the 2014 season, four Division I FBS teams are selected at the end of regular season to compete in a playoff for the FBS national championship. (Audio help)

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Playoff games

and championships

The first college football game in Oklahoma Territory occurred on November 7, 1895 when the ‘Oklahoma City Terrors’ defeated the Oklahoma Sooners 34 to 0

Office Gambling Is Unethical

Betting money on sports (or the Oscars, or anything else) falls in the latter category. But there are lots of stimulating things to talk about that just don’t belong at work.

But before you conclude that office pools have few legal consequences, consider this: Some employees, including those at the management level, have been fired (and in at least one case, arrested) for participating in these games, on the grounds the practice was either illegal or in violation of company policy.

. For example, we are legally required to file a federal tax return each year, so anyone who wishes to be a citizen in good standing (or at least not to become a member of the prison population) wisely chooses to pay his or her taxes. But they can violate corporate policies and the law. Whether either activity is your cup of tea is up to you; what isn’t up for grabs is the propriety of doing either at work for a significant amount of time.

Book me to speak at your next event here.

March Madness office pools involving cash are common, exciting, and potentially lucrative. Yes, roulette has terrible odds, but I like the quiet atmosphere and the fact that there is absolutely no skill involved.

Bottom line: The workplace shouldn’t be a joyless Orwellian nightmare.

The High Cost of Low Living

My argument that it is wrong to participate in office pools is not based on the ethics of gambling as such. “It’s harmless fun.” At the beginning of March Madness, you kick in a few dollars, then follow your team over the coming weeks and months. It’s quite another to have a shouting match about something that has nothing to do with one’s job.

Watch an excerpt from my keynote speech on ethical intelligence here.

Order my books Ethical Intelligence and Is It Still Cheating If I Don’t Get Caught? from your favorite independent bookseller or here.

Because pool participants risk violating the law, the rules they have agreed to when they accepted their jobs, or both, the games are of questionable value. David Joffe of the law firm Bradley Arant Boult Cummings LLP.

Besides, winning a sporting event is extremely important to some of us, and arguments about sports can out of hand. Some of the best moments in our lives occur at work with close colleagues. In other words, in some states, office pools are illegal. Based on my research, however, I’ve discovered the legality of office pools in which employees bet cash on professional or college sports teams varies from state to state. It’s called a workplace for a reason: It’s the place where we’re supposed to work. “If the stakes are high, the result of the pool could create disharmony in the workplace, and the problems could escalate,” says employment law expert B. Yes, it is true that these laws are rarely enforced, and yes, it makes sense for police to investigate homicides, bank robberies, sexual assaults, and other serious crimes before they pursue rumors that employees in the local coffee shop are betting on the Louisville Cardinals over the Kansas Jayhawks.

3. Even where they are legal and not in violation of company protocol, however, they’re ethically unintelligent, and we shouldn’t participate in them.

Arguments about ethics are not entirely dependent on what the law, public policy, and corporate rules and regulations happen to be. “Companies are fighting like mad to bring people together, and office pools are a great way to stimulate watercooler conversations,” said John Challenger, chief executive of Challenger Gray & Christmas, to The Business Review in Albany, N.Y., in 2002. Most people lose.

When examining the propriety of office pools, it is thus important to look at the relevant law. It’s one thing to have a heated discussion about a project on which you and a colleague are working. The fact that the head of an organization sanctions a practice says little or nothing about whether the practice is justifiable or not. Some stakeholders may have religious objections to it. A third group may simply view gambling on the job as unseemly. After all, Kenneth Lay and Jeffrey Skilling of Enron thought it was perfectly fine to play with employee pension funds as if they were Monopoly money, but no one today is saying that their leadership roles made what they did O.K. “The CEO allows or encourages it.” This is, quite frankly, a cop-out. What’s the harm in that? Even if there happens to be no legal or policy issues at stake, the harm has to do with how stakeholders would view the business if on-the-job gambling activities were revealed. But this isn’t the main reason we shouldn’t place bets at work.

A slightly different version of this article was published originally on Bloomberg Businessweek Online.

The issue isn’t whether a particular activity is high- or lowbrow. For all of the problems in the legal system, it is hard to imagine that a civilized society could survive for long without laws and the serious consequences of failing to honor them.

The office, however, simply isn’t an appropriate place for gambling. Others might be concerned that employees will not give their full attention to their work. In the right social setting, gambling is a fun way to spend some time and, one hopes, not too much money (provided one does not have an addiction to gambling). If you’re on the job, it’s just as questionable to spend 45 minutes debating the Cartesian mind-body distinction as it is to play your favorite game app for that long. Whatever the objections are, they deserve to be taken seriously.

2. Things that interfere with doing our jobs well should be done before or after work. When David Frost asked former President Richard Nixon in 1977 if it is acceptable for a President to do something illegal, Nixon replied, “Well, when the President does it, that means that it is not illegal.” Nixon was mistaken, and so is any corporate leader who believes that “if I say it’s all right, then it must be all right.”

If even a small percentage of customers, board members, and shareholders is likely to be troubled by the practice of on-site betting, that alone is sufficient cause for concern. For any law or policy, we can and should ask: “Is it right? Is it fair? Is it just?”

This is not a call to civil disobedience, however. A few win. But it’s ethically intelligent to draw the line between fun that’s appropriate in the workplace and good times that are better had elsewhere. An action can be legal but wrong, or it can be illegal but ethically required. When I’m in Las Vegas — to give talks on, of all things, ethics — I usually make time for the roulette tables. The same goes for talking politics at work , having sex, drinking single malt whisky, surfing the Web for bargains, or yakking with friends on our smartphones.

But what about the folks who just place their bets and get back to work–what’s the problem there? Let’s look at some frequently marshaled defenses of office pools and why these claims are mistaken.

1. Before doing so, I must emphasize that I am not an attorney, and nothing in this blog should be considered legal advice. The law is an important first step in deciding what we should do and why we should do it. “Office pools build morale and camaraderie.” Next to the thrill of winning, this is the most popular justification for office pools. One would like to believe that laws, regulations, and policies are always based on what is right, but we know that too often they are shaped by special interests, outdated beliefs, or pure and simple prejudice

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